Chapter 2 Installing and Upgrading MySQL


内容表

2.1 General Installation Guidance
2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install
2.1.2 How to Get MySQL
2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.4 Installation Layouts
2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package
2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows
2.3.4 MySQL Notifier
2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive
2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.4 Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS
2.4.2 Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages
2.4.3 Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon
2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository
2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository
2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository
2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle
2.5.5 Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages from Oracle
2.5.6 Deploying MySQL on Linux with Docker
2.5.7 Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories
2.5.8 Installing MySQL on Linux with Juju
2.5.9 Managing MySQL Server with systemd
2.6 Installing MySQL Using Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN)
2.7 Installing MySQL on Solaris
2.7.1 Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.8 Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9 Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1 MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.2 Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.3 Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.4 MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.5 Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.6 MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.9.7 Generating MySQL Doxygen Documentation Content
2.10 Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1 Initializing the Data Directory
2.10.2 Starting the Server
2.10.3 Testing the Server
2.10.4 Securing the Initial MySQL Account
2.10.5 Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically
2.11 Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1 Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2 Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3 Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.4 Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12 Perl Installation Notes
2.12.1 Installing Perl on Unix
2.12.2 Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.12.3 Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details. If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL” , for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.

If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database system, see Section A.8, “MySQL 8.0 FAQ: Migration” , which contains answers to some common questions concerning migration issues.

Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

  1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your platform.

    Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL website.

  2. Choose which distribution to install.

    Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. Oracle also provides access to the MySQL source code for those who want to see recent developments and test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.1, “Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install” .

  3. Download the distribution that you want to install.

    For instructions, see Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” . To verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG” .

  4. Install the distribution.

    To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” .

    To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source” .

  5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.

    After installing MySQL, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” for information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. Also refer to the information provided in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account” . This section describes how to secure the initial MySQL root user account, which has no password until you assign one. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.

  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.12, “Perl Installation Notes” .

Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

2.1 General Installation Guidance

The immediately following sections contain the information necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to install the distribution that you choose. For binary distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” or the corresponding section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from source, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source” .

2.1.1 Which MySQL Version and Distribution to Install

MySQL is available on a number of operating systems and platforms. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL website.

When preparing to install MySQL, decide which version and distribution format (binary or source) to use.

First, decide whether to install a development release or a General Availability (GA) release. Development releases have the newest features, but are not recommended for production use. GA releases, also called production or stable releases, are meant for production use. We recommend using the most recent GA release.

The naming scheme in MySQL 8.0 uses release names that consist of three numbers and an optional suffix; for example, mysql-8.0.1-dmr . The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

  • The first number ( 8 ) is the major version number.

  • The second number ( 0 ) is the minor version number. Taken together, the major and minor numbers constitute the release series number. The series number describes the stable feature set.

  • The third number ( 1 ) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new bugfix release. In most cases, the most recent version within a series is the best choice.

Release names can also include a suffix to indicate the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • dmr indicates a development milestone release (DMR). MySQL development uses a milestone model, in which each milestone introduces a small subset of thoroughly tested features. From one milestone to the next, feature interfaces may change or features may even be removed, based on feedback provided by community members who try these earily releases. Features within milestone releases may be considered to be of pre-production quality.

  • rc indicates a Release Candidate (RC). Release candidates are believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal testing. New features may still be introduced in RC releases, but the focus shifts to fixing bugs to stabilize features introduced earlier within the series.

  • Absence of a suffix indicates a General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases are stable, having successfully passed through the earlier release stages, and are believed to be reliable, free of serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems.

Development within a series begins with DMR releases, followed by RC releases, and finally reaches GA status releases.

After choosing which MySQL version to install, decide which distribution format to install for your operating system. For most use cases, a binary distribution is the right choice. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM packages for Linux or DMG packages for OS X. Distributions are also available in more generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files. On Windows, you can use the MySQL Installer to install a binary distribution.

Under some circumstances, it may be preferable to install MySQL from a source distribution:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ready to run at any installation location, but you might require even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

  • You want to configure mysqld with features that might not be included in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options used to ensure feature availability:

    For additional information, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options” .

  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions.

  • You want to read or modify the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, obtain a source distribution.

  • Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2 How to Get MySQL

Check our downloads page at https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html . You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

For RPM-based Linux platforms that use Yum as their package management system, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL Yum Repository . See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

For Debian-based Linux platforms, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL APT Repository . See Section 2.5.2, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository” for details.

For SUSE Linux Enterprise Server (SLES) platforms, MySQL can be installed using the MySQL SLES Repository . See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository” for details.

To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree” .

2.1.3 Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After downloading the MySQL package that suits your needs and before attempting to install it, make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums

  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG , the GNU Privacy Guard

  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.3.1 Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the file (product) that you download.

Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named md5sum , or it may be named md5 , and some operating systems do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can also download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/ . If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/ . winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum . Our Microsoft Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe .

Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz
                            
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-8.0.17.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-8.0.17.msi
                            

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note

Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip , .tar.gz , or .msi file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file before extracting its contents.

2.1.3.2 Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums , but requires more work.

We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy ( PGP ) by Phil Zimmermann. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. Otherwise, see http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download from http://pgp.mit.edu/ . The key that you want to obtain is named mysql-build@oss.oracle.com . Alternatively, you can copy and paste the key directly from the following text:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: GnuPG v1
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GoaU9u41oyZTIiXPiFidJoIZCh7fdurP8pn3X+R5HUNXMr7M+ba8lSNxce/F3kmH
0L7rsKqdh9d/aVxhJINJ+inVDnrXWVoXu9GBjT8Nco1iU9SIVAQYEQIADAUCTnc9
7QUJE/sBuAASB2VHUEcAAQEJEIxxjTtQcuH1FJsAmwWK9vmwRJ/y9gTnJ8PWf0BV
roUTAKClYAhZuX2nUNwH4vlEJQHDqYa5yQ==
=ghXk
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
                            

To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use gpg --import . For example, if you have saved the key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc , the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
                            

You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the public key id, 5072E1F5 :

shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53
                            

If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc
                            

If you experience problems or require RPM specific information, see Section 2.1.3.4, “Signature Checking Using RPM” .

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

Table 2.1 MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files

File Type File Name
Distribution file mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature file mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc
                            

If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
                            

The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-8.0.17-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5
                            

That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:

  • gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found : This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.

  • WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. : This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

2.1.3.3 Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI tool like Gpg4win . You may use a different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog should look similar to:

Figure 2.1 Kleopatra: Initial Screen

Shows the default Kleopatra screen. The top menu includes "File", "View", "Certificates", "Tools", "Settings", "Window", and "Help.". Underneath the top menu is a horizontal action bar with available buttons to "Import Certificates", "Redisplay", and "Lookup Certificates on Server". Greyed out buttons are "Export Certificates" and "Stop Operation". Underneath is a search box titled "Find". Underneath that are three tabs: "My Certificates", "Trusted Certificates", and "Other Certificates" with the "My Certificates" tab selected. "My Certificates" contains six columns: "Name", "E-Mail", "Valid From", "Valid Until", "Details", and "Key-ID". There are no example values.

Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by clicking File , Lookup Certificates on Server . Type "Mysql Release Engineering" into the search box and press Search .

Figure 2.2 Kleopatra: Lookup Certificates on Server Wizard: Finding a Certificate

Shows a search input field titled "Find" with "mysql release engineering" entered. The one result contains the following values: Name=MySQL Release Engineering, E-Mail=mysql-build@oss.oracle.com, Valid From=2003-02-03, Valid Until="", Details=OpenPGP, Fingerprint=5072E1F5, and Key-ID=5072E1F5. Available action buttons are: Search, Select All, Deselect All, Details, Import, and Close.

Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking Import . An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay , and this certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates tab.

Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates , Change Owner Trust... . We suggest choosing I believe checks are very accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate to enable "full trust" and then press OK .

Figure 2.3 Kleopatra: Change Trust level for MySQL Release Engineering

A list of trust options are displayed, the options include "I don't know (unknown trust)", "I do NOT trust them (never trust)", "I believe checks are casual (marginal trust)", "I believe checks are very accurate (full trust)", and "This is my certificate (ultimate trust)". The "I believe checks are very accurate (full trust)" option is selected.

Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

Table 2.2 MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer for Microsoft Windows

File Type File Name
Distribution file mysql-installer-community-8.0.17.msi
Signature file mysql-installer-community-8.0.17.msi.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature ( .asc ) file into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File , Decrypt/Verify Files... , and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

Figure 2.4 Kleopatra: The Decrypt and Verify Files Dialog

Shows available decrypt and verify options to perform. A MySQL Installer MSI file is used in the example where the .asc file is listed as "Input file" and the .msi file is listed under "Signed Data". The "Input file is detached signature" option's checkbox is checked. A "Input file is an archive; unpack with:" option is shown but greyed out. Below is the "Create all output files in a single folder" option checkbox that is checked, and an "Output folder" input field with "C:/docs" entered as an example. The available buttons are "Back" (greyed out), "Decrypt/Verify", and "Cancel."

Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common results will look like the following, and although the yellow warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check passed with success. You may now run this installer.

Figure 2.5 Kleopatra: the Decrypt and Verify Results Dialog: All operations completed

Yellow portion of the results window shows "Not enough information to check signature validity" and "The validity of the signature cannot be verified." Also shown is key information, such as the KeyID and email address, the key's sign on date, and also displays the name of the ASC file..

Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

Figure 2.6 Kleopatra: the Decrypt and Verify Results Dialog: Bad

Red portion of the results window shows "Invalid signature", "Signed with unknown certificate", "The signature is bad", and also displays the name of the ASC file.

The Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.3.4 Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm
                            

范例:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-8.0.17-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-8.0.17-0.linux_glibc2.5.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
                            
Note

If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5) , even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then use rpm --import to import the key. For example:

shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc
                            

Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a URL, and you can use this manual page:

shell> rpm --import https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/8.0/en/checking-gpg-signature.html
                            

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” .

2.1.4 Installation Layouts

The installation layout differs for different installation types (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different systems or using different installation sources. The individual layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these layouts.

2.1.5 Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the features available for use. The notes in this section apply for binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you compile yourself from source.

icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

A server built with icc has these characteristics:

  • SSL support is not included.

2.2 Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include generic binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.xz extension) for a number of platforms, and binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.

This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution on Unix/Linux platforms. For other platform-specific binary package formats, see the other platform-specific sections in this manual. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows” . See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” on how to obtain MySQL in different distribution formats.

MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form mysql- VERSION - OS .tar.xz , where VERSION is a number (for example, 8.0.17 ), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64 ).

Warnings
  • If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as Yum or APT, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check for configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql directory and delete them.

    For information about replacing third-party packages with official MySQL packages, see the related APT guide or Yum guide .

  • MySQL has a dependency on the libaio library. Data directory initialization and subsequent server startup steps will fail if this library is not installed locally. If necessary, install it using the appropriate package manager. For example, on Yum-based systems:

    shell> yum search libaio  # search for info
    shell> yum install libaio # install library
                                        

    Or, on APT-based systems:

    shell> apt-cache search libaio # search for info
    shell> apt-get install libaio1 # install library
                                        

To install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql ). This creates the directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.3 MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package

Directory Contents of Directory
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
docs MySQL manual in Info format
man Unix manual pages
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
share Error messages, dictionary, and SQL for database installation
support-files Miscellaneous support files

Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug . To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. See Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source” .

To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the command sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar xvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> mkdir mysql-files
shell> chown mysql:mysql mysql-files
shell> chmod 750 mysql-files
shell> bin/mysqld --initialize --user=mysql
shell> bin/mysql_ssl_rsa_setup
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server
                    
Note

This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (Solaris) command.

The mysql-files directory provides a convenient location to use as the value for the secure_file_priv system variable, which limits import and export operations to a specific directory. See Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables” .

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.

Create a mysql User and Group

If your system does not already have a user and group to use for running mysqld , you may need to create them. The following commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql . If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix/Linux, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup .

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql -s /bin/false mysql
                    
Note

Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r and -s /bin/false options to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit these options if your useradd does not support them.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under /usr/local . The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in /usr/local . If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as root .

shell> cd /usr/local
                    

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” . For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.

Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar xvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz
                    

The tar command creates a directory named mysql- VERSION - OS .

To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU XZ Utils to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it.

Note

The compression algorithm changed from Gzip to XZ in MySQL Server 8.0.12; and the generic binary's file extension changed from .tar.gz to .tar.xz.

GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar , or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar , gtar , or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin . GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/ .

If your tar does not support the xz format then use the xz command to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:

shell> xz -dc /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.xz | tar x
                    

Next, create a symbolic link to the installation directory created by tar :

shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
                    

The ln command makes a symbolic link to the installation directory. This enables you to refer more easily to it as /usr/local/mysql . To avoid having to type the path name of client programs always when you are working with MySQL, you can add the /usr/local/mysql/bin directory to your PATH variable:

shell> export PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin
                    

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting distribution ownership and access permissions, initializing the data directory, starting the MySQL server, and setting up the configuration file. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” .

2.3 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

Important

MySQL 8.0 Server requires the Microsoft Visual C++ 2015 Redistributable Package to run on Windows platforms. Users should make sure the package has been installed on the system before installing the server. The package is available at the Microsoft 下载中心 . Additionally, MySQL debug binaries require Visual Studio 2015 to be installed.

MySQL is available for Microsoft Windows 64-bit operating systems only. For supported Windows platform information, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html .

There are different methods to install MySQL on Microsoft Windows.

MySQL Installer Method

The simplest and recommended method is to download MySQL Installer (for Windows) and let it install and configure all of the MySQL products on your system. Here is how:

  1. Download MySQL Installer from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ and execute it.

    Note

    Unlike the standard MySQL Installer, the smaller "web-community" version does not bundle any MySQL applications but it will download the MySQL products you choose to install.

  2. Choose the appropriate Setup Type for your system. Typically you will choose Developer Default to install MySQL server and other MySQL tools related to MySQL development, helpful tools like MySQL Workbench. Or, choose the Custom setup type to manually select your desired MySQL products.

    Note

    Multiple versions of MySQL server can exist on a single system. You can choose one or multiple versions.

  3. Complete the installation process by following the instructions. This will install several MySQL products and start the MySQL server.

MySQL is now installed. If you configured MySQL as a service, then Windows will automatically start MySQL server every time you restart your system.

Note

You probably also installed other helpful MySQL products like MySQL Workbench on your system. Consider loading Chapter 31, MySQL Workbench to check your new MySQL server connection to view the connection's status. By default, these two programs automatically start after installing MySQL.

This process also installs the MySQL Installer application on your system, and later you can use MySQL Installer to upgrade or reconfigure your MySQL products.

Additional Installation Information

It is possible to run MySQL as a standard application or as a Windows service. By using a service, you can monitor and control the operation of the server through the standard Windows service management tools. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service” .

To accommodate the RESTART statement, the MySQL server forks when run as a service or standalone, to enable a monitor process to supervise the server process. In this case, you will observe two mysqld processes. If RESTART capability is not required, the server can be started with the --no-monitor option. See Section 13.7.7.8, “RESTART Syntax” .

Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager . When installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user with Administrator privileges.

For a list of limitations on the use of MySQL on the Windows platform, see Section C.10.5, “Windows Platform Limitations” .

In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want additional components to use MySQL with your application or development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

  • To connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you must have a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/ODBC Developer Guide .

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/ODBC for you.

  • To use MySQL server with .NET applications, you must have the Connector/NET driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see MySQL Connector/NET Developer Guide .

    Note

    MySQL Installer will install and configure MySQL Connector/NET for you.

MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ . See Section 2.1.2, “How to Get MySQL” .

MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats, detailed here. Generally speaking, you should use MySQL Installer. It contains more features and MySQL products than the older MSI, is simpler to use than the compressed file, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running. MySQL Installer automatically installs MySQL Server and additional MySQL products, creates an options file, starts the server, and enables you to create default user accounts. For more information on choosing a package, see Section 2.3.2, “Choosing an Installation Package” .

MySQL on Windows Considerations

  • Large Table Support

    If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax” .

  • MySQL and Virus Checking Software

    Virus-scanning software such as Norton/Symantec Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of MySQL and the virus-scanning software misidentifying the contents of the files as containing spam. This is due to the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus-scanning software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.

    After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you disable virus scanning on the main directory ( datadir ) used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system built into the virus-scanning software to enable specific directories to be ignored.

    In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary files also being scanned, configure a separate temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this directory to the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File” .

2.3.1 MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

For MySQL 8.0 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 for installations performed with MySQL Installer. If you use the ZIP archive method to install MySQL, you may prefer to install in C:\mysql . However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.

All of the files are located within this parent directory, using the structure shown in the following table.

Table 2.4 Default MySQL Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows

Directory Contents of Directory Notes
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\ Log files, databases The Windows system variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData .
docs Release documentation With MySQL Installer, use the Modify operation to select this optional folder.
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation

2.3.2 Choosing an Installation Package

For MySQL 8.0, there are multiple installation package formats to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows. The package formats described in this section are:

Program Database (PDB) files (with file name extension pdb ) provide information for debugging your MySQL installation in the event of a problem. These files are included in ZIP Archive distributions (but not MSI distributions) of MySQL.

MySQL Installer

This package has a file name similar to mysql-installer-community-8.0.17.0.msi or mysql-installer-commercial-8.0.17.0.msi , and utilizes MSIs to automatically install MySQL server and other products. MySQL Installer will download and apply updates to itself, and for each of the installed products. It also configures the installed MySQL server (including a sandbox InnoDB cluster test setup) and MySQL Router. MySQL Installer is recommended for most users.

MySQL Installer can install and manage (add, modify, upgrade, and remove) many other MySQL products, including:

  • Applications – MySQL Workbench, MySQL for Visual Studio, MySQL Notifier, MySQL for Excel, MySQL Utilities, MySQL Shell, MySQL Router (see https://dev.mysql.com/doc/mysql-compat-matrix/en/ )

  • Connectors – MySQL Connector/C, MySQL Connector/C++, MySQL Connector/NET, Connector/ODBC, MySQL Connector/Python, MySQL Connector/J, MySQL Connector/Node.js

  • Documentation – MySQL Manual (PDF format), samples and examples

MySQL Installer operates on all MySQL supported versions of Windows (see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html ).

Note

Because MySQL Installer is not a native component of Microsoft Windows and depends on .NET, it will not work on minimal installation options like the Server Core version of Windows Server.

For instructions on how to install MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows” .

MySQL noinstall ZIP Archives

These packages contain the files found in the complete MySQL Server installation package, with the exception of the GUI. This format does not include an automated installer, and must be manually installed and configured.

The noinstall ZIP archives are split into two separate compressed files. The main package is named mysql- VERSION -winx64.zip . This contains the components needed to use MySQL on your system. The optional MySQL test suite, MySQL benchmark suite, and debugging binaries/information components (including PDB files) are in a separate compressed file named mysql- VERSION -winx64-debug-test.zip .

If you choose to install a noinstall ZIP archive, see Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive” .

MySQL Docker Images

For information on using the MySQL Docker images provided by Oracle on Windows platform, see Section 2.5.6.3, “Deploying MySQL on Windows and Other Non-Linux Platforms with Docker” .

Warning

The MySQL Docker images provided by Oracle are built specifically for Linux platforms. Other platforms are not supported, and users running the MySQL Docker images from Oracle on them are doing so at their own risk.

2.3.3 MySQL Installer for Windows

MySQL Installer is a standalone application designed to ease the complexity of installing and managing MySQL products that run on Microsoft Windows. It supports the following MySQL products:

  • MySQL Servers

    MySQL Installer can install and manage multiple, separate MySQL server instances on the same host at the same time. For example, MySQL Installer can install, configure, and upgrade a separate instance of MySQL 5.6, MySQL 5.7, and MySQL 8.0 on the same host. MySQL Installer does not permit server upgrades between major and minor version numbers, but does permit upgrades within a release series (such as 5.7.18 to 5.7.19).

    Note

    MySQL Installer cannot install both Community and Commercial (Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition) releases of MySQL server on the same host. If you require both releases on the same host, consider using the ZIP archive distribution to install one of the releases.

  • MySQL Applications

    MySQL Workbench, MySQL Shell, MySQL Router, MySQL for Visual Studio, MySQL for Excel, MySQL Notifier, and MySQL Utilities.

  • MySQL Connectors

    MySQL Connector/NET, MySQL Connector/Python, MySQL Connector/ODBC, MySQL Connector/J, MySQL Connector/C, and MySQL Connector/C++.

    Note

    To install MySQL Connector/Node.js, see https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/nodejs/ . Connector/Node.js does not provide an .msi file for use with MySQL Installer.

  • Documentation and Samples

    MySQL Reference Manuals (by version) in PDF format and MySQL database samples (by version).

Installation Requirements

MySQL Installer requires Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5.2 or later. If this version is not installed on the host computer, you can download it by visiting the Microsoft website .

MySQL Installer Community Release

Download software from https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/ to install the Community release of all MySQL products for Windows. Select one of the following MySQL Installer package options:

  • Web: Contains MySQL Installer and configuration files only. The web package downloads only the MySQL products you select to install, but it requires an internet connection for each download. The size of this file is approximately 2 MB; the name of the file has the form mysql-installer-community- web - VERSION . N .msi where VERSION is the MySQL server version number such as 8.0 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

  • Full: Bundles all of the MySQL products for Windows (including the MySQL server). The file size is over 300 MB, and its name has the form mysql-installer-community- VERSION . N .msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 8.0 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

MySQL Installer Commercial Release

Download software from https://edelivery.oracle.com/ to install the Commercial (Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition) release of MySQL products for Windows. The Commercial release includes all of the current and previous GA versions in the Community release (excludes development-milestone versions) and also includes the following products:

  • Workbench SE/EE

  • MySQL Enterprise Backup

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall

The Commercial release integrates with your My Oracle Support (MOS) account. For knowledge-base content and patches, see My Oracle Support .

2.3.3.1 MySQL Installer Initial Setup

When you download MySQL Installer for the first time, a setup wizard guides you through the initial installation of MySQL products. As the following figure shows, the initial setup is a one-time activity in the overall process. MySQL Installer detects existing MySQL products installed on the host during its initial setup and adds them to the list of products to be managed.

Figure 2.7 MySQL Installer Process Overview

MySQL Installer process. Non-repeating steps: download MySQL Installer; perform the initial setup. Repeating steps: install products (download products, run .msi files, configuration, and install complete); manage products and update the MySQL Installer catalog.

MySQL Installer extracts configuration files (described later) to the hard drive of the host during the initial setup. Although MySQL Installer is a 32-bit application, it can install both 32-bit and 64-bit binaries.

The initial setup adds a link to the Start menu under the MySQL group. Click Start , All Programs , MySQL , MySQL Installer to open MySQL Installer.

MySQL Installer Licensing and Support Authentication

MySQL Installer requires you to accept the license agreement before it will install new MySQL packages. After you accept the terms of the agreement, you can add, update, reconfigure, and remove all of the products and features provided by the MySQL Installer release you downloaded.

For the Commercial release, entering your My Oracle Support (MOS) credentials is optional when installing bundled MySQL products, but your credentials are required when choosing unbundled MySQL products that MySQL Installer must download. An unbundled product is any .msi file that you download using MySQL Installer after the initial setup. Your credentials must match the user name and password that you have registered with Oracle for access to the support site.

Choosing a Setup Type

During the initial setup, you are prompted to select the MySQL products to be installed on the host. One alternative is to use a predetermined setup type that matches your setup requirements. By default, both GA and pre-release products are included in the download and installation with the Developer Default , Client only , and Full setup types. Select the Only install GA products option to restrict the product set to include GA products only when using these setup types.

Choosing one of the following setup types determines the initial installation only and does not limit your ability to install or update MySQL products for Windows later:

  • Developer Default : Install the following products that compliment application development with MySQL:

  • Server only : Only install the MySQL server. This setup type installs the general availability (GA) or development release server that you selected when you downloaded MySQL Installer. It uses the default installation and data paths.

  • Client only : Only install the most recent MySQL applications and MySQL connectors. This setup type is similar to the Developer Default type, except that it does not include MySQL server or the client programs typically bundled with the server, such as mysql or mysqladmin .

  • Full : Install all available MySQL products.

  • Custom The custom setup type enables you to filter and select individual MySQL products from the MySQL Installer catalog .

    Use the Custom setup type to install:

    • A product or product version that is not available from the usual download locations. The catalog contains all product releases, including the other releases between pre-release (or development) and GA.

    • An instance of MySQL server using an alternative installation path, data path, or both. For instructions on how to adjust the paths, see Section 2.3.3.2.3, “Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer” .

    • Two or more MySQL server versions on the same host at the same time (for example, 5.6, 5.7, and 8.0).

    • A specific combination of products and features not offered as a predetermine setup type. For example, you can install a single product, such as MySQL Workbench, instead of installing all client applications for Windows.

Path Conflicts

When the default installation or data folder (required by MySQL server) for a product to be installed already exists on the host, the wizard displays the Path Conflict step to identify each conflict and enable you to take action to avoid having files in the existing folder overwritten by the new installation. You see this step in the initial setup only when MySQL Installer detects a conflict.

To resolve the path conflict, do one of the following:

  • Select a product from the list to display the conflict options. A warning symbol indicates which path is in conflict. Use the browse button to choose a new path and then click 下一 .

  • Click Back to choose a different setup type or product version, if applicable. The Custom setup type enables you to select individual product versions.

  • Click 下一 to ignore the conflict and overwrite files in the existing folder.

  • Delete the existing product. Click Cancel to stop the initial setup and close MySQL Installer. Open MySQL Installer again from the Start menu and delete the installed product from the host using the Delete operation from the dashboard .

Check Requirements

MySQL Installer uses entries in the package-rules.xml file to determine whether the prerequisite software for each product is installed on the host. When the requirements check fails, MySQL Installer displays the Check Requirements step to help you update the host. The following figure identifies and describes the key areas of this step.

Figure 2.8 Check Requirements

MySQL Installer check-requirements before any requirements are downloaded and installed.

Description of Check Requirements Elements
  1. Shows the current step in the initial setup. Steps in this list may change slightly depending on the products already installed on the host, the availability of prerequisite software, and the products to be installed on the host.

  2. Lists all pending installation requirements by product and indicates the status as follows:

    • A blank space in the Status column means that MySQL Installer can attempt to download and install the required software for you.

    • The word Manual in the Status column means that you must satisfy the requirement manually. Select each product in the list to see its requirement details.

  3. Describes the requirement in detail to assist you with each manual resolution. When possible, a download URL is provided. After you download and install the required software, click Check to verify that the requirement has been met.

  4. Provides the following set operations to proceed:

    • Back – Return to the previous step. This action enables you to select a different the setup type.

    • Execute – Have MySQL Installer attempt to download and install the required software for all items without a manual status. Manual requirements are resolved by you and verified by clicking Check .

    • 下一 – Do not execute the request to apply the requirements automatically and proceed to the installation without including the products that fail the check requirements step.

    • Cancel – Stop the installation of MySQL products. Because MySQL Installer is already installed, the initial setup begins again when you open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click Add from the dashboard. For a description of the available management operations, see Product Catalog .

MySQL Installer Configuration Files

All MySQL Installer files are located within the C:\Program Files (x86) and C:\ProgramData folders. The following table describes the files and folders that define MySQL Installer as a standalone application.

Note

Installed MySQL products are neither altered nor removed when you update or uninstall MySQL Installer.

Table 2.5 MySQL Installer Configuration Files

File or Folder 描述 Folder Hierarchy
MySQL Installer for Windows This folder contains all of the files needed to run MySQL Installer and MySQLInstallerConsole.exe , a command-line program with similar functionality. C:\Program Files (x86)
Templates The Templates folder has one file for each version of MySQL server. Template files contain keys and formulas to calculate some values dynamically. C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
package-rules.xml

This file contains the prerequisites for every product to be installed.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
produts.xml

The products file (or product catalog) contains a list of all products available for download.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows\Manifest
Product Cache

The Product Cache folder contains all standalone .msi files bundled with the full package or downloaded afterward.

C:\ProgramData\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows

2.3.3.2 Installation Workflow with MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer provides a wizard-like tool to install and configure new MySQL products for Windows. Unlike the initial setup, which runs only once, MySQL Installer invokes the wizard each time you download or install a new product. For first-time installations, the steps of the initial setup proceed directly into the steps of the installation.

Note

Full permissions are granted to the user executing MySQL Installer to all generated files, such as my.ini . This does not apply to files and directories for specific products, such as the MySQL server data directory in %ProgramData% that is owned by SYSTEM .

Products installed and configured on a host follow a general pattern that might require your input during the various steps. MySQL Installer loads all selected products together using the following workflow:

  • Product download. If you installed the full (not web) MySQL Installer package, all .msi files were loaded to the Product Cache folder during the initial setup and are not downloaded again. Otherwise, click Execute to begin the download. The status of each product changes from Downloading to Downloaded .

  • Product installation. The status of each product in the list changes from Ready to Install , to Installing , and lastly to Complete . During the process, click Show Details to view the installation actions.

    If you cancel the installation at this point, the products are installed, but the server (if installed) is not yet configured. To restart the server configuration, open MySQL Installer from the Start menu and click the Reconfigure link next to the appropriate server in the dashboard.

  • Product configuration. This step applies to MySQL Server, MySQL Router, and samples only. The status for each item in the list should indicate Ready to Configure .

    Click 下一 to start the configuration wizard for all items in the list. The configuration options presented during this step are specific to the version of database or router that you selected to install.

    Click Execute to begin applying the configuration options or click Back (repeatedly) to return to each configuration page. Click Finish to open the MySQL Installer dashboard .

  • Installation compete. This step finalizes the installation for products that do not require configuration. It enables you to copy the log to a clipboard and to start certain applications, such as MySQL Workbench and MySQL Shell. Click Finish to open the MySQL Installer dashboard .

2.3.3.2.1 Group Replication

You have two options to implement a high-availability solution when you install MySQL 5.7.18 or higher (64-bit) using MySQL Installer:

  • Standalone MySQL Server / Classic MySQL Replication (default)

    Select this option to begin the initial configuration of a standalone MySQL server. You can configure multiple servers with classic MySQL Replication manually or use MySQL Shell to configure a production InnoDB cluster.

    Click 下一 to proceed to the remaining configuration steps. For a description of the configuration options that apply to a standalone MySQL server on Windows, see Section 2.3.3.2.2, “Server Configuration with MySQL Installer” .

  • Sandbox InnoDB Cluster Setup (for testing only)

    Select this option to create and configure sandbox InnoDB cluster instances locally for testing. You can configure a sandbox InnoDB cluster to have three, five, seven, or nine MySQL server instances. Use the Reconfigure quick action in the MySQL Installer dashboard to adjust the number of instances in the InnoDB cluster after the configuration has finished.

    Note

    Existing instance ports (3310 to 3390), which may have been set for a sandbox InnoDB cluster manually using MySQL Shell, will be deleted by MySQL Installer if you run the sandbox InnoDB cluster test setup.

    As the following figure shows, this step requires that you enter a password for the MySQL root account. The password strength is evaluated when you retype it.

    Figure 2.9 Sandbox InnoDB cluster Test Setup

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

The sandbox InnoDB cluster, named sandboxCluster by default, is available on selected ports. After the configuration executes, click the Summary tab to view the specific ports that apply to your cluster. Sandbox InnoDB cluster configuration entries are stored in the installer_config.xml file.

You can use MySQL Installer to install MySQL Shell, if it is not installed. MySQL Shell enables you to manage the sandbox instances. To connect with the MySQL Shell on port 3310, execute the following command:

mysqlsh root@localhost:3310
                                

MySQL Installer also provides a wizard for configuring MySQL Router to connect to the test InnoDB cluster that was created in this step. For configuration details, see MySQL Router Configuration . To learn more about MySQL Router operations, see Routing for MySQL InnoDB cluster .

2.3.3.2.2 Server Configuration with MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer handles the initial configuration of the MySQL server. For example:

  • It creates the configuration file ( my.ini ) that is used to configure the MySQL server. The values written to this file are influenced by choices you make during the installation process. Some definitions are host dependent. For example, query_cache is enabled if the host has fewer than three cores.

    Note

    Query cache was deprecated in MySQL 5.7 and removed in MySQL 8.0 (and later).

  • By default, a Windows service for the MySQL server is added.

  • Provides default installation and data paths for MySQL server. For instructions on how to change the default paths, see Section 2.3.3.2.3, “Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer” .

  • It can optionally create MySQL server user accounts with configurable permissions based on general roles, such as DB Administrator, DB Designer, and Backup Admin. It optionally creates a Windows user named MysqlSys with limited privileges, which would then run the MySQL Server.

    User accounts may also be added and configured in MySQL Workbench.

  • Checking Show Advanced Options enables additional Logging Options to be set. This includes defining custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

During the configuration process, click 下一 to proceed to the next step or Back to return to the previous step. Click Execute at the final step to apply the server configuration.

The sections that follow describe the server configuration options that apply to MySQL server on Windows. The server version you installed will determine which steps and options you can configure. Configuring MySQL server may include some or all of the following steps:

Type and Networking
  • Server Configuration Type

    Choose the MySQL server configuration type that describes your setup. This setting defines the amount of system resources (memory) that will be assigned to your MySQL server instance.

    • Development : A machine that will host many other applications, and typically this is your personal workstation. This option configures MySQL to use the least amount of memory.

    • Server : Several other applications will be running on this machine, such as a web server. This option configures MySQL to use a medium amount of memory.

    • Dedicated : A machine that is dedicated to running the MySQL server. Because no other major applications will run on this server, such as a web server, this option configures MySQL to use the majority of available memory.

  • Connectivity

    Connectivity options control how the connection to MySQL is made. Options include:

    • TCP/IP : You may enable TCP/IP Networking here as otherwise only local host connections are permitted. Also define the Port (for classic MySQL), X Protocol Port (for MySQL as a document store), and whether to open the firewall port for network access.

      Important

      For MySQL 5.7.12 to MySQL 8.0.4 server configurations, the X Protocol port is set separately in the Plugins and Extensions step .

      If the port number is in use already, you will see the information icon ( ) next to the default value and 下一 is disabled until you provide a new port number.

    • Named Pipe : Enable and define the pipe name, similar to using the --enable-named-pipe option. The default name is MySQL .

    • Shared Memory : Enable and then define the memory name, similar to using the --shared-memory option. The default name is MySQL .

  • Advanced Configuration

    Check Show Advanced Options to set custom logging and advanced options in later steps. The Logging Options step enables you to define custom file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log. The Advanced Options step enables you to set the unique server ID required when binary logging is enabled in a replication topology.

  • MySQL Enterprise Firewall (Enterprise Edition only)

    The Enable Enterprise Firewall check box is selected by default. For post-installation instructions, see Section 6.5.7, “MySQL Enterprise Firewall” .

Authentication Method

The Authentication Method step is visible only during the installation or upgrade of MySQL 8.0.4 or higher. It introduces a choice between two server-side authentication options. The MySQL user accounts that you create in the next step will use the authentication method that you select in this step.

MySQL 8.0 connectors and community drivers that use libmysqlclient 8.0 now support the mysql_native_password default authentication plugin. However, if you are unable to update your clients and applications to support this new authentication method, you can configure the MySQL server to use mysql_native_password for legacy authentication. For more information about the implications of this change, see caching_sha2_password as the Preferred Authentication Plugin .

If you are installing or upgrading to MySQL 8.0.4 or higher, select one of the following authentication methods:

  • Use Strong Password Encryption for Authentication (RECOMMENDED)

    MySQL 8.0 supports a new authentication based on improved, stronger SHA256-based password methods. It is recommended that all new MySQL server installations use this method going forward.

    Important

    The caching_sha2_password authentication plugin on the server requires new versions of connectors and clients, which add support for the new MySQL 8.0 default authentication.

  • Use Legacy Authentication Method (Retain MySQL 5.x Compatibility)

    Using the old MySQL 5.x legacy authentication method should be considered only in the following cases:

    • Applications cannot be updated to use MySQL 8.0 connectors and drivers.

    • Recompilation of an existing application is not feasible.

    • An updated, language-specific connector or driver is not available yet.

Accounts and Roles
  • Root Account Password

    Assigning a root password is required and you will be asked for it when performing other MySQL Installer operations. Password strength is evaluated when you repeat the password in the box provided. For descriptive information regarding password requirements or status, move your mouse pointer over the information icon ( ) when it appears.

  • MySQL User Accounts (Optional)

    Click Add User or Edit User to create or modify MySQL user accounts with predefined roles. Next, enter the required account credentials:

    • User Name: MySQL user names can be up to 32 characters long.

    • Host: Select localhost for local connections only or <All Hosts (%)> when remote connections to the server are required.

    • Role: Each predefined role, such as DB Admin , is configured with its own set of privileges. For example, the DB Admin role has more privileges than the DB Designer role. The Role drop-down list contains a description of each role.

    • Password: Password strength assessment is performed while you type the password. Passwords must be confirmed. MySQL permits a blank or empty password (considered to be insecure).

    MySQL Installer Commercial Release Only: MySQL Enterprise Edition for Windows, a commercial product, also supports an authentication method that performs external authentication on Windows. Accounts authenticated by the Windows operating system can access the MySQL server without providing an additional password.

    To create a new MySQL account that uses Windows authentication, enter the user name and then select a value for Host and Role . Click Windows authentication to enable the authentication_windows plugin. In the Windows Security Tokens area, enter a token for each Windows user (or group) who can authenticate with the MySQL user name. MySQL accounts can include security tokens for both local Windows users and Windows users that belong to a domain. Multiple security tokens are separated by the semicolon character ( ; ) and use the following format for local and domain accounts:

    • Local account

      Enter the simple Windows user name as the security token for each local user or group; for example, finley;jeffrey;admin .

    • Domain account

      Use standard Windows syntax ( domain \ domainuser ) or MySQL syntax ( domain \\ domainuser ) to enter Windows domain users and groups.

      For domain accounts, you may need to use the credentials of an administrator within the domain if the account running MySQL Installer lacks the permissions to query the Active Directory. If this is the case, select Validate Active Directory users with to activate the domain administrator credentials.

    Windows authentication permits you to test all of the security tokens each time you add or modify a token. Click Test Security Tokens to validate (or revalidate) each token. Invalid tokens generate a descriptive error message along with a red X icon and red token text. When all tokens resolve as valid (green text without an X icon), you can click OK to save the changes.

Windows Service

On the Windows platform, MySQL server can run as a named service managed by the operating system and be configured to start up automatically when Windows starts. Alternatively, you can configure MySQL server to run as an executable program that requires manual configuration.

  • Configure MySQL server as a Windows service (Selected by default.)

    When the default configuration option is selected, you can also select the following:

    • Start the MySQL Server at System Startup

      When selected (default), the service startup type is set to Automatic; otherwise, the startup type is set to Manual.

    • Run Windows Service as

      When Standard System Account is selected (default), the service logs on as Network Service.

      The Custom User option must have privileges to log on to Microsoft Windows as a service. The 下一 button will be disabled until this user is configured with the required privileges.

      A custom user is configured in Windows by searching for "local security policy" in the Start menu. In the Local Security Policy window, select Local Policies , User Rights Assignment , and then Log On As A Service to open the property dialog. Click Add User or Group to add the custom user and then click OK in each dialog to save the changes.

  • Deselect the Windows Service option

Plugins and Extensions

The Plugins and Extensions step is visible during a new installation of MySQL 5.7.12 to MySQL 8.0.4 only. It supports the X Plugin, which must be installed and activated to use MySQL as a document store.

Important

As of MySQL 8.0.11, the X Plugin now is activated by default. To specify X Protocol and Firewall ports to enable MySQL 8.0.11 (or higher) as a document store, see the connectivity options in the Types and Networking step.

If you are upgrading from a previous MySQL version, then you need to open MySQL Installer again and select the Reconfigure MySQL server option. The options include:

  • Enable X Protocol / MySQL as a Document Store (Selected by default.)

    When the X Protocol option is selected, MySQL Installer loads and starts the X Plugin. Without the X Plugin running, X Protocol clients cannot connect to the server.

    • Port Number: 33060

      Requires an unused port. The default port number is 33060.

    • Open Firewall port for network access

      Open by default when the X Protocol is selected.

    For more information about using MySQL as a document store and the X Plugin, see Section 20.2, “Document Store Concepts” and Section 20.5, “X Plugin” .

Logging Options

This step is available if the Show Advanced Configuration check box was selected during the Type and Networking step. To enable this step now, click Back to return to the Type and Networking step and select the check box.

Advanced configuration options are related to the following MySQL log files:

Note

The binary log is enabled by default for MySQL 5.7 and higher.

Advanced Options

This step is available if the Show Advanced Configuration check box was selected during the Type and Networking step. To enable this step now, click Back to return to the Type and Networking step and select the check box.

The advanced-configuration options include:

  • Server ID

    Set the unique identifier used in a replication topology. If binary logging is enabled, you must specify a server ID. The default ID value depends on the server version. For more information, see the description of the --server-id option.

  • Table Names Case

    You can set the following options during the initial and subsequent configuration the server. For the MySQL 8.0 release series, these options apply only to the initial configuration of the server.

    • Lower Case

      Sets the lower_case_table_names option value to 1 (default), in which table names are stored in lowercase on disk and comparisons are not case sensitive.

    • Preserve Given Case

      Sets the lower_case_table_names option value to 2, in which table names are stored as given but compared in lowercase.

Apply Server Configuration

All configuration settings are applied to the MySQL server when you click Execute . Use the Configuration Steps tab to follow the progress of each action; the icon for each toggles from white to green (with a check mark) on success. Otherwise, the process stops and displays an error message if an individual action times out. Click the Log tab to view the log.

When the installation is done and you click Finish , MySQL Installer and the installed MySQL products are added to the Microsoft Windows Start menu under the MySQL group. Opening MySQL Installer loads the dashboard where installed MySQL products are listed and other MySQL Installer operations are available.

2.3.3.2.3 Setting Alternative Server Paths with MySQL Installer

You can change the default installation path, the data path, or both when you install MySQL server. After you have installed the server, the paths cannot be altered without removing and reinstalling the server instance.

To change paths for MySQL server

  1. Identify the MySQL server to change and display the Advanced Options link.

    1. Navigate to the Select Products and Features step by doing one of the following:

      1. If this is an initial setup , select the Custom setup type and click 下一 .

      2. If MySQL Installer is installed already, launch it from the Start menu and then click Add from the dashboard.

    2. Click Edit to filter the list of products, locate the server instance to be installed in the Available Products list.

    3. With the server instance selected, use the arrow to move the selected server to the Products/Features To Be Installed list.

    4. Click the server to select it. When you select the server, the Advanced Options link appears. For details, see the figure that follows.

  2. Click Advanced Options to open a dialog window with the path-setting options. After setting the path, click 下一 to continue with the configuration steps.

    Figure 2.10 Change MySQL Server Path

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

2.3.3.2.4 MySQL Applications, Connectors, and Documentation

MySQL Installer downloads and installs a suite of tools for developing and managing business-critical applications on Windows. The suite consist of applications, connectors, documentation, and samples.

During the initial setup , choose any predetermined setup type, except Server only , to install the latest GA version of the tools. Use the Custom setup type to install an individual tool or specific version. If MySQL Installer is installed on the host already, use the Add operation to select and install tools from the MySQL Installer dashboard.

MySQL Router Configuration

MySQL Installer provides a configuration wizard that can bootstrap an installed instance of MySQL Router 2.1.3 or later to route traffic between MySQL applications and an InnoDB cluster. When configured, MySQL Router runs as a local Windows service. For detailed information about using MySQL Router with an InnoDB cluster, see Routing for MySQL InnoDB cluster .

To configure MySQL Router, do the following:

  1. Set up InnoDB cluster. For instructions on how to configure a sandbox InnoDB cluster on the local host using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3.2.1, “Group Replication” . InnoDB cluster requires MySQL Server 5.7.18 or higher.

    For general InnoDB cluster information, see Chapter 21, InnoDB Cluster .

  2. Using MySQL Installer, download and install the MySQL Router application. After the installation finishes, the configuration wizard prompts you for information. Select the Configure MySQL Router for InnoDB cluster check box to begin the configuration and provide the following configuration values:

    • Hostname: localhost by default.

    • Port: The port number of the primary server in the InnoDB cluster. The default is 3310.

    • Management User: An administrative user with root-level privileges.

    • Password: The password for the management user.

    • Classic MySQL protocol connections to InnoDB cluster

      Read/Write: Set the first base port number to one that is unused (between 80 and 65532) and the wizard will select the remaining ports for you.

      The figure that follows shows an example of the MySQL Router configuration page, with the first base port number specified as 6446 and the remaining ports set by the wizard as 6447, 6448, and 6449.

    Figure 2.11 MySQL Router Configuration

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

  3. Click 下一 and then Execute to apply the configuration. Click Finish to close MySQL Installer or return to the MySQL Installer dashboard.

2.3.3.3 MySQL Installer Product Catalog and Dashboard

This section describes the MySQL Installer product catalog and the dashboard.

Product Catalog

The product catalog stores the complete list of released MySQL products for Microsoft Windows that are available to download from MySQL Downloads . By default, and when an Internet connection is present, MySQL Installer updates the catalog daily. You can also update the catalog manually from the dashboard (described later).

An up-to-date catalog performs the following actions:

  • Populates the Available Products pane of the Select Products and Features step. This step appears when you select:

    • The Custom setup type during the initial setup .

    • The Add operation from the dashboard.

  • Identifies when product updates are available for the installed products listed in the dashboard.

The catalog includes all development releases (Pre-Release), general releases (Current GA), and minor releases (Other Releases). Products in the catalog will vary somewhat, depending on the MySQL Installer release that you download.

MySQL Installer Dashboard

The MySQL Installer dashboard is the default view that you see when you start MySQL Installer after the initial setup finishes. If you closed MySQL Installer before the setup was finished, MySQL Installer resumes the initial setup before it displays the dashboard.

Figure 2.12 MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements

Content is described in the surrounding text.

Description of MySQL Installer Dashboard Elements
  1. MySQL Installer dashboard operations provide a variety of actions that apply to installed products or products listed in the catalog. To initiate the following operations, first click the operation link and then select the product or products to manage:

    • Add : This operation opens the Select Products and Features page. From there, you can filter the product in the product catalog, select one or more products to download (as needed), and begin the installation. For hints about using the filter, see Locating Products to Install .

    • Modify : Use this operation to add or remove the features associated with installed products. Features that you can modify vary in complexity by product. When the Program Shortcut check box is selected, the product appears in the Start menu under the MySQL group.

    • Upgrade : This operation loads the Select Products to Upgrade page and populates it with all the upgrade candidates. An installed product can have more than one upgrade version and requires a current product catalog.

      Important server upgrade conditions:

      • MySQL Installer does not permit server upgrades between major release versions or minor release versions, but does permit upgrades within a release series, such as an upgrade from 5.7.18 to 5.7.19.

      • Upgrades between milestone releases (or from a milestone release to a GA release) are not supported. Significant development changes take place in milestone releases and you may encounter compatibility issues or problems starting the server.

      To choose a new product version:

      1. Click Upgrade . Confirm that the check box next to product name in the Upgradeable Products pane has a check mark. Deselect the products that you do not intend to upgrade at this time.

        Note

        For server milestone releases in the same release series, MySQL Installer deselects the server upgrade and displays a warning to indicate that the upgrade is not supported, identifies the risks of continuing, and provides a summary of the steps to perform a logical upgrade manually. You can reselect server upgrade at your own risk. For instructions on how to perform a logical upgrade with a milestone release, see Logical Upgrade .

      2. Click a product in the list to highlight it. This action populates the Upgradeable Versions pane with the details of each available version for the selected product: version number, published date, and a Changes link to open the release notes for that version.

      MySQL Installer upgrades all of the selected products in one action. Click Show Details to view the actions performed by MySQL Installer.

    • Remove This operation opens the Remove Products page and populates it with the MySQL products installed on the host. Select the MySQL products you want to remove (uninstall) and then click Execute to begin the removal process.

      To select products to remove, do one of the following:

      • Select the check box for one or more products.

      • Select the Product check box to select all products.

  2. The Reconfigure link in the Quick Action column next to each installed server loads the current configuration values for the server and then cycles through all configuration steps enabling you to change the options and values. On completion, MySQL Installer stops the server, applies the configuration changes, and restarts the server for you. For a description of each configuration option, see Section 2.3.3.2.2, “Server Configuration with MySQL Installer” .

    Installed Samples and Examples associated with a specific MySQL server version can be also be reconfigured to apply feature-configuration changes, if any. You must provide credentials with root privileges to reconfigure these items.

  3. The 分类 link enables you to download the latest catalog of MySQL products manually and then to integrate those product changes with MySQL Installer. The catalog-download action does not perform an upgrade of the products already installed on the host. Instead, it returns to the dashboard and displays an arrow icon in the Version column for each installed product that has a newer version. Use the Upgrade operation to install the newer product version.

    You can also use the 分类 link to display the current change history of each product without downloading the new catalog. Select the Do not update at this time check box to view the change history only.

  4. The MySQL Installer About icon ( ) shows the current version of MySQL Installer and general information about MySQL. The version number is located above the Back button.

    Always include this version number when reporting a problem with MySQL Installer.

  5. The MySQL Installer Options icon ( ) includes the following tabs:

    • Product Catalog : Manages the daily automatic catalog updates. By default, catalog updates are scheduled at a fixed hour. When new products or product versions are available, MySQL Installer adds them to the catalog and then displays an arrow icon ( ) next to the version number of installed products listed in the dashboard.

      Use this option to enable or disable automatic catalog updates and to reset the time of day when the MySQL Installer updates the catalog automatically. For specific settings, see the task named ManifestUpdate in the Windows Task Scheduler.

    • Connectivity Settings : Several operations performed by MySQL Installer require internet access. This option enables you to use a default value to validate the connection or to use a different URL, one selected from a list or added by you manually. With the Manual option selected, new URLs can be added and all URLs in the list can be moved or deleted. When the Automatic option is selected, MySQL Installer attempts to connect to each default URL in the list (in order) until a connection is made. If no connection can be made, it raises an error.

Locating Products to Install

MySQL products in the catalog are listed by category: MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, and Documentation. Only the latest GA versions appear in the Available Products pane by default. If you are looking for a pre-release or older version of a product, it may not be visible in the default list.

To change the default product list, click Add on the dashboard to open the Select Products and Features page, and then click Edit to open the filter dialog box (see the figure that follows). Modify the product values and then click Filter .

Figure 2.13 Filter Available Products

Filter by Text, Category, Age, Already Downloaded, and Architecture.

Reset one or more of the following values to filter the list of available products:

  • Text: Filter by text.

  • Category: All Software (default), MySQL Servers, Applications, MySQL Connectors, or Documentation (for samples and documentation).

  • Age: Pre-Release, Current GA (default), or Other Releases.

    Note

    The Commercial release of MySQL Installer does not display any MySQL products when you select the Pre-Release age filter. Products in development are available from the Community release of MySQL Installer only.

  • Already Downloaded (the check box is deselected by default).

  • Architecture: Any (default), 32-bit, or 64-bit.

2.3.3.4 MySQLInstallerConsole Reference

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe provides command-line functionality that is similar to MySQL Installer. It is installed when MySQL Installer is initially executed and then available within the MySQL Installer directory. Typically, that is in C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer\ , and the console must be executed with administrative privileges.

To use, invoke the command prompt with administrative privileges by choosing Start , Accessories , then right-click on Command Prompt and choose Run as administrator . And from the command line, optionally change the directory to where MySQLInstallerConsole.exe is located:

C:\> cd Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows
C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer for Windows> MySQLInstallerConsole.exe help
=================== Start Initialization ===================
MySQL Installer is running in Community mode
Attempting to update manifest.
Initializing product requirements
Loading product catalog
Checking for product catalog snippets
Checking for product packages in the bundle
Categorizing product catalog
Finding all installed packages.
Your product catalog was last updated at 11/1/2016 4:10:38 PM
=================== End Initialization ===================
The following commands are available:
Configure - Configures one or more of your installed programs.
Help      - Provides list of available commands.
Install   - Install and configure one or more available MySQL programs.
List      - Provides an interactive way to list all products available.
Modify    - Modifies the features of installed products.
Remove    - Removes one or more products from your system.
Status    - Shows the status of all installed products.
Update    - Update the current product catalog.
Upgrade   - Upgrades one or more of your installed programs.
                            

MySQLInstallerConsole.exe supports the following commands:

Note

Configuration block values that contain a colon (":") must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0".

  • configure [product1]:[setting]=[value]; [product2]:[setting]=[value]; [...]

    Configure one or more MySQL products on your system. Multiple setting=value pairs can be configured for each product.

    Switches include:

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings .

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure -showsettings server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole configure server:port=3307
                                            
  • help [command]

    Displays a help message with usage examples, and then exits. Pass in an additional command to receive help specific to that command.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole help install
                                            
  • install [product]:[features]:[config block]:[config block]:[config block]; [...]

    Install one or more MySQL products on your system. If pre-release products are available, both GA and pre-release products are installed when the value of the -type switch is Developer , Client , or Full . Use the -only_ga_products switch to restrict the product set to GA products only when using these setup types.

    Switches and syntax options include:

    • -only_ga_products : Restricts the product set to include GA products only.

    • -type=[SetupType] : Installs a predefined set of software. The "SetupType" can be one of the following:

      Note

      Non-custom setup types can only be chosen if no other MySQL products are installed.

      • Developer : Installs a complete development environment.

      • Server : Installs a single MySQL server

      • Client : Installs client programs and libraries

      • Full : Installs everything

      • Custom : Installs user selected products. This is the default option.

    • -showsettings : Displays the available options for the selected product, by passing in the product name after -showsettings .

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    • [config block] : One or more configuration blocks can be specified. Each configuration block is a semicolon separated list of key value pairs. A block can include either a "config" or "user" type key, where "config" is the default type if one is not defined.

      Configuration block values that contain a colon character ( : ) must be wrapped in double quotes. For example, installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0" .

      Only one "config" type block can be defined per product. A "user" block should be defined for each user that should be created during the product's installation.

      Note

      Adding users is not supported when a product is being reconfigured.

    • [feature] : The feature block is a semicolon separated list of features, or an asterisk character ( * ) to select all features.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25:*:port=3307;serverid=2:type=user;username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64 -silent
                                            

    An example that passes in additional configuration blocks, separated by ^ to fit:

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole install server;5.6.25;x64:*:type=config;openfirewall=true; ^
              generallog=true;binlog=true;serverid=3306;enable_tcpip=true;port=3306;rootpasswd=pass; ^
              installdir="C:\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6":type=user;datadir="C:\MySQL\data";username=foo;password=bar;role=DBManager
                                            
  • list

    Lists an interactive console where all of the available MySQL products can be searched. Execute MySQLInstallerConsole list to launch the console, and enter in a substring to search.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole list
                                            
  • modify [product1:-removelist|+addlist] [product2:-removelist|+addlist] [...]

    Modifies or displays features of a previously installed MySQL product.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:+documentation
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole modify server:-debug
                                            
  • remove [product1] [product2] [...]

    Removes one ore more products from your system.

    • * : Pass in * to remove all of the MySQL products.

    • -continue : Continue the operation even if an error occurs.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole remove server
                                            
  • status

    Provides a quick overview of the MySQL products that are installed on the system. Information includes product name and version, architecture, date installed, and install location.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole status
                                            
  • update

    Downloads the latest MySQL product catalog to your system. On success, the download catalog will be applied the next time either MySQLInstaller or MySQLInstallerConsole is executed.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole update
                                            
    Note

    The Automatic Catalog Update GUI option executes this command from the Windows Task Scheduler.

  • upgrade [product1:version] [product2:version] [...]

    Upgrades one or more products on your system. Syntax options include:

    • * : Pass in * to upgrade all products to the latest version, or pass in specific products.

    • ! : Pass in ! as a version number to upgrade the MySQL product to its latest version.

    • -silent : Disable confirmation prompts.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade *
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:!
    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole upgrade workbench:6.3.5 excel:1.3.2
                                            

2.3.4 MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier is a tool that enables you to monitor and adjust the status of your local and remote MySQL server instances through an indicator that resides in the Microsoft Windows taskbar. MySQL Notifier also gives quick access to MySQL Workbench through its context menu.

MySQL Notifier is installed by using MySQL Installer. It can be loaded automatically when Microsoft Windows is started.

To install, download and execute the MySQL Installer . With MySQL Notifier selected from Applications, proceed with the installation. See the MySQL Installer manual for additional details.

For notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Notifier, see the MySQL Notifier Release Notes .

Visit the MySQL Notifier forum for additional MySQL Notifier help and support.

Features include:

  • Start, stop, and restart instances of the MySQL server.

  • Automatically detects (and adds) new MySQL server services. These are listed under Manage Monitored Items , and may also be configured.

  • The Tray icon changes, depending on the status. It is a right-pointing green triangle if all monitored MySQL server instances are running or a red square if at least one service is stopped. The Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status option, which dictates this behavior, is enabled by default for each service.

  • Links to other applications like MySQL Workbench, MySQL Installer, and the MySQL Utilities. For example, choosing Manage Instance will load the MySQL Workbench Server Administration window for that particular instance.

  • If MySQL Workbench is also installed, then the Manage Instance and SQL Editor options are available for local (but not remote) MySQL instances.

  • Monitors both local and remote MySQL instances.

2.3.4.1 MySQL Notifier Usage

MySQL Notifier provides visual status information for the MySQL servers that are monitored on both local or remote computers. The MySQL Notifier icon in the taskbar changes color to indicate the current status: Running or Stopped.

MySQL Notifier automatically adds discovered MySQL services on the local computer. By default, the Automatically add new services whose name contains option is enabled and set to mysql . Related notification options include being notified when new services are either discovered or experience status changes, and are also enabled by default. Uninstalling a service removes the service from MySQL Notifier.

Clicking the MySQL Notifier icon from the Windows taskbar reveals the MySQL Notifier main menu, which lists each MySQL server separately and displays its current status. You can start, stop, or restart each MySQL server from the menu as the following figure shows. When MySQL Workbench is installed locally, the Manage Instance and SQL Editor menu items start the application.

Figure 2.14 MySQL Notifier Service Instance Menu

Content is described in the surrounding text.

The Actions menu includes the following items:

  • Manage Monitored Items

  • Launch MySQL Installer (Only when the product is installed.)

  • Check for Updates (Only when MySQL Installer is installed.)

  • MySQL Utilities Shell (Only when the product is installed.)

  • Refresh Status

  • Options

  • About

  • Close MySQL Notifier

The main menu does not show the Actions menu when there are no services being monitored by MySQL Notifier.

MySQL Notifier Options

The Actions , Options menu provides a set of options that configure MySQL Notifier operations. Options are grouped into the following categories: General Options , Notification Options , and MySQL Server Connections Options .

Click Accept to enable the selected options or Cancel to ignore all changes. Click Reset to Defaults and then Accept to apply default option values.

General Options. This group includes:

  • Use colorful status icons : Enables a colorful style of icons for the tray of MySQL Notifier. Selected by default.

  • Run at Windows Startup : Allows the application to be loaded when Microsoft Windows starts. Deselected by default.

  • Automatically Check For Updates Every # Weeks : Checks for a new version of MySQL Notifier, and runs this check every # weeks. Selected by default with the updates every four weeks.

  • Automatically add new services whose name contains: The text used to filter services and add them automatically to the monitored list of the local computer running MySQL Notifier and on remote computers already monitoring Windows services. Selected by default for names containing mysql .

  • Ping monitored MySQL Server instances every # seconds : The interval (in seconds) to ping monitored MySQL Server instances for status changes. Longer intervals might be necessary if the list of monitored remote instances is large. 30 seconds by default.

Notification Options. This group includes:

  • Notify me when a service is automatically added : Display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a newly discovered service is added to the monitored services list. Selected by default.

  • Notify me when a service changes status : Displays a balloon notification from the taskbar when a monitored service changes its status. Selected by default.

MySQL Server Connections Options. This group includes:

  • Automatic connections migration delayed until: When there are connections to migrate to MySQL Workbench (if installed), this option postpones the migration by one hour, one day, one week, one month, or indefinitely.

Managing Monitored Items

The Actions , Manage Monitored Items menu enables you to add, configure, and delete the services and MySQL instances you intend to monitor. The Manage Items window has two tabs: Services and Instances .

Services Tab. When MySQL is configured as a local service, MySQL Notifier adds the service to the Services tab automatically. With the Services tab open, you can select the following options that apply to all services being monitored:

  • Notify me when status changes

  • Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status

The next figure shows the Services tab open and both options selected. This tab shows the service name, the computer where the service is hosted, and the current status of the service.

Figure 2.15 MySQL Notifier: Manage Services

Content is described in the surrounding text.

To stop monitoring a service, select it from the list of monitored services and click Delete .

Click Add and then Windows Service to open the Add Service window. To add a new service, select a computer from the drop-down list, choose a service from the list, and then click OK to accept. Use the Filter field to reduce the set of services in the list or select Only show services that match auto-add filter? to reuse the general-options filter from the Options menu.

A variety of Windows services (including MySQL) may be selected as the following figure shows. In addition to the service name, the list shows the current status of each Windows services for the selected computer.

Figure 2.16 MySQL Notifier: Adding New Services

Content is described in the surrounding text.

Instances Tab. When MySQL is configured as a MySQL instance, MySQL Notifier adds the instance to the Instances tab automatically. With the Instances tab open, you can select the following options that apply to each instance being monitored:

  • Notify me when status changes

  • Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status

  • Monitor MySQL Instance status every [ # ] [ seconds | minutes | hours | days ]

The next figure shows the Instances tab open and both options selected. Monitoring the instance status is set to every two minutes in this example. This tab shows the instance name, the database driver, and the current status of the instance.

Figure 2.17 MySQL Notifier: Manage MySQL Instances

Content is described in the surrounding text.

To stop monitoring an instance, select it from the list of monitored MySQL instances and click Delete .

Click Add and then MySQL Instances to open the Monitor MySQL Server Instance window. Use the Filter field to reduce the set of instances in the list or select Show MySQL instances already being monitored? to show monitored items only.

Optionally, you can select a connection from MySQL Workbench to monitor. Click Add New Connection , shown in the next figure, to create a new connection.

Figure 2.18 MySQL Notifier: Adding New Instances

Content is described in the surrounding text.

Troubleshooting

For issues that are not documented here, visit the MySQL Notifier Support Forum for MySQL Notifier help and support.

  • Problem : attempting to start/stop/restart a MySQL service might generate an error similar to "The Service MySQL VERSION failed the most recent status change request with the message "The service mysql VERSION was not found in the Windows Services".

    Explanation : this is a case-sensitivity issue, in that the service name is MySQL VERSION compared to having mysql VERSION in the configuration file.

    Solution : either update your MySQL Notifier configuration file with the correct information, or stop MySQL Notifier and delete this configuration file. The MySQL Notifier configuration file is located at %APPDATA%\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config where %APPDATA% is a variable and depends on your system. A typical location is "C:\Users\ YourUsername \AppData\Running\Oracle\MySQL Notifier\settings.config" where YourUsername is your system's user name. In this file, and within the ServerList section, change the ServerName values from lowercase to the actual service names. For example, change mysql VERSION to MySQL VERSION , save, and then restart MySQL Notifier. Alternatively, stop MySQL Notifier, delete this file, then restart MySQL Notifier.

  • Problem : when connecting to a remote computer for the purpose of monitoring a remote Windows service, the Add Service dialog does not always show all the services shown in the Windows Services console.

    Explanation : this behavior is governed by the operating system and the outcome is expected when working with nondomain user accounts. For a complete description of the behavior, see the User Account Control and WMI article from Microsoft.

    Solution : when the remote computer is in a compatible domain, it is recommended that domain user accounts are used to connect through WMI to a remote computer. For detailed setup instructions using WMI, see Section 2.3.4.2, “Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier” .

    Alternatively, when domain user accounts are not available, Microsoft provides a less secure workaround that should only be implemented with caution. For more information, see the 描述 of User Account Control and remote restrictions in Windows Vista KB article from Microsoft.

2.3.4.2 Setting Up Remote Monitoring in MySQL Notifier

MySQL Notifier uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to manage and monitor services on remote computers. This section explains how it works and how to set up your system to monitor remote MySQL instances.

In order to configure WMI, it is important to understand that the underlying Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) architecture is doing the WMI work. Specifically, MySQL Notifier is using asynchronous notification queries on remote Microsoft Windows hosts as .NET events. These events send an asynchronous callback to the computer running MySQL Notifier so it knows when a service status has changed on the remote computer. Asynchronous notifications offer the best performance compared to semisynchronous notifications or synchronous notifications that use timers.

As the following figure shows, asynchronous notification requires the remote computer to send a callback to the client computer (thus opening a reverse connection), so the Windows Firewall and DCOM settings must be properly configured for the communication to function properly. The client (Computer A), which includes an unsecured application ( unsecapp.exe in this example), makes an asynchronous call to a remote computer (Computer B) and receives a call back with data.

Figure 2.19 MySQL Notifier Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

Content is described in the surrounding text.

Most of the common errors thrown by asynchronous WMI notifications are related to Windows Firewall blocking the communication, or to DCOM / WMI settings not being set up properly. For a list of common errors with solutions, see Common Errors .

The following steps are required to make WMI function. These steps are divided between two machines. A single host computer that runs MySQL Notifier (Computer A), and multiple remote machines that are being monitored (Computer B).

Computer running MySQL Notifier (Computer A)
  1. Enable remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor , or using NETSH :

    Using the Group Policy Editor :

    1. Click Start , click Run , type GPEDIT.MSC , and then click OK .

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, expand Computer Configuration .

    3. Expand Administrative Templates , then Network , Network Connections , and then Windows Firewall .

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile ; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile .

    5. Double-click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception to open a configuration window.

    6. Check the Enabled option button and then click OK .

    Using the NETSH command:

    Note

    The "netsh firewall" command is deprecated as of Microsoft Server 2008 and Vista, and replaced with "netsh advfirewall firewall".

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator ).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
                                                              
  2. Open the DCOM port TCP 135:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and select Run as Administrator ).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=DCOM_TCP135 protocol=TCP localport=135 dir=in action=allow
                                                              
  3. Add the client application that contains the sink for the callback ( MySqlNotifier.exe ) to the Windows Firewall Exceptions List (use either the Windows Firewall configuration or NETSH ):

    Using the Windows Firewall configuration:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Windows Firewall .

    2. In the Windows Firewall window, click Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall .

    3. In the Allowed Programs window, click Change Settings and do one of the following:

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is in the Allowed programs and features list, make sure it is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

      • If MySqlNotifier.exe is not in the list, click Allow another program .

        1. In the Add a Program window, select the MySqlNotifier.exe if it exists in the Programs list, otherwise click Browse and go to the directory where MySqlNotifier.exe was installed to select it, then click Add .

        2. Make sure MySqlNotifier.exe is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator ).

    2. Execute the following command, where you change " [YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY] ":

      NETSH advfirewall firewall add rule name=MySqlNotifier program=[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]\MySqlNotifier.exe action=allow dir=in
                                                              
  4. If Computer B is either a member of WORKGROUP or is in a different domain that is untrusted by Computer A, then the callback connection (Connection 2) is created as an Anonymous connection. To grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions:

    1. Click Start , click Run , type DCOMCNFG , and then click OK .

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties .

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits .

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access , and then click OK .

Monitored Remote Computer (Computer B)

If the user account that is logged on to the computer running the MySQL Notifier (Computer A) is a local administrator on the remote computer (Computer B), such that the same account is an administrator on Computer B, you can skip to the "Allow for remote administration" step.

Setting DCOM security to allow a non-administrator user to access a computer remotely:

  1. Grant "DCOM remote launch" and activation permissions for a user or group:

    1. Click Start , click Run , type DCOMCNFG , and then click OK .

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties .

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Launch and Activation Permission, click Edit Limits .

    5. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, follow these steps if your name or your group does not appear in the Groups or user names list:

      1. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, click Add .

      2. In the Select Users or Groups dialog box, add your name and the group in the Enter the object names to select box, and then click OK .

    6. In the Launch and Activation Permission dialog box, select your user and group in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Launch , select Remote Activation , and then click OK .

    Grant DCOM remote access permissions:

    1. Click Start , click Run , type DCOMCNFG , and then click OK .

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties .

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits .

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access , and then click OK .

  2. Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools .

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management .

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the Services and Applications tree.

    4. Right-click the WMI Control icon and select Properties .

    5. In the WMI Control Properties window, click the Security tab.

    6. In the Security tab, select the namespace and click Security . Root/CIMV2 is a commonly used namespace.

    7. Locate the appropriate account and check Remote Enable in the Permissions list.

  3. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor or using NETSH :

    Using the Group Policy Editor :

    1. Click Start , click Run , type GPEDIT.MSC , and then click OK .

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click Computer Configuration .

    3. Double-click Administrative Templates , then Network , Network Connections , and then Windows Firewall .

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile ; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile .

    5. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception .

    6. On the Action menu either select Edit , or double-click the selection from the previous step.

    7. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK .

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator ).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH advfirewall firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
                                                              
  4. Confirm that the user account you are logging in with uses the Name value and not the Full Name value:

    1. In the Control Panel , double-click Administrative Tools .

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management .

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools then Local Users and Groups .

    4. Click the Users node, and on the right side panel locate your user and make sure it uses the Name value to connect, and not the Full Name value.

Common Errors
  • 0x80070005

    • DCOM Security was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Setting DCOM security... step).

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x8007000E

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x80041003

    • Access to the remote WMI namespace was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace step).

  • 0x800706BA

    • The DCOM port is not open on the client computers (Computer A) firewall. See the Open the DCOM port TCP 135 step for Computer A.

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is inaccessible because its network location is set to Public. Make sure you can access it through the Windows Explorer.

2.3.5 Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall ZIP Archive

Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The process for installing MySQL from a ZIP Archive package is as follows:

  1. Extract the main archive to the desired install directory

    Optional : also extract the debug-test archive if you plan to execute the MySQL benchmark and test suite

  2. Create an option file

  3. Choose a MySQL server type

  4. Initialize MySQL

  5. Start the MySQL server

  6. Secure the default user accounts

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.5.1 Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to Section 2.11.1.9, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows” , before beginning the upgrade process.

  2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.

  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL server is installed in C:\mysql . If you do not install MySQL at C:\mysql , you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File” .

    Note

    The MySQL Installer installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL .

  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred file-compression tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs, you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.5.2 Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that are used every time the server starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations ( C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data ).

  • You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache, or InnoDB configuration information.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\ , and the MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see Section 4.2.7, “Using Option Files” ). The Windows directory typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS . You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%
                            

MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file, and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

Note

When using the MySQL Installer to install MySQL Server, it will create the my.ini at the default location, and the user executing MySQL Installer is granted full permissions to this new my.ini file.

In other words, be sure that the MySQL Server user has permission to read the my.ini file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution; see Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults” .

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data , you can create an option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data
                            

Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data
                            

The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.7, “Using Option Files” .

The ZIP archive does not include a data directory. To initialize a MySQL installation by creating the data directory and populating the tables in the mysql system database, initialize MySQL using either --initialize or --initialize-insecure . For additional information, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld” .

If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the data directory instead, you must do two things:

  1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data ) to E:\mydata .

  2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

2.3.5.3 Selecting a MySQL Server Type

The following table shows the available servers for Windows in MySQL 8.0.

Binary 描述
mysqld Optimized binary with named-pipe support
mysqld-debug Like mysqld , but compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines a given server supports.

All Windows MySQL 8.0 servers have support for symbolic linking of database directories.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on Windows also support named pipes, if you start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is necessary to use this option explicitly because some users have experienced problems with shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used. The default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform because named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.

2.3.5.4 Initializing the Data Directory

If you installed MySQL using the noinstall package, no data directory is included. To initialize the data directory, use the instructions at Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld” .

2.3.5.5 Starting the Server for the First Time

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL using the noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test MySQL manually rather than with the MySQL Installer.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 . Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the server is started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY option.

For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.3.5.3, “Selecting a MySQL Server Type” .

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or DOS window ). In this way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

Note

The database must be initialized before MySQL can be started. For additional information about the initialization process, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld” .

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --console
                            

For a server that includes InnoDB 支持, you should see the messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names and sizes may differ):

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started
                            

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '8.0.17'  socket: ''  port: 3306
                            

The server continues to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory ( C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data by default). The error log is the file with the .err extension, and may be set using the --log-error option.

Note

The initial root account in the MySQL grant tables has no password. After starting the server, you should set up a password for it using the instructions in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account” .

2.3.5.6 Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (or DOS window ) and enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld"
                            

The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
                            
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Microsoft Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. By default, the error log is located in the C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data directory. It is the file with a suffix of .err , or may be specified by passing in the --log-error option. Alternatively, you can try to start the server with the --console option; in this case, the server may display some useful information on the screen that will help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See Section 29.5.3, “The DBUG Package” .

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld supports.

2.3.5.7 Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties .

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables , select Path , and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value . (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin )

    Note

    There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field.

    Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. The new PATH value should now be available to any new command shell you open, allowing you to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump .

You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

2.3.5.8 Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when Windows starts and stops. A MySQL server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has administrator rights.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager ) can be found in the Windows Control Panel. To avoid conflicts, it is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown
                            
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system.

Note

Users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Install the server as a service using this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --install
                            

The service-installation command does not start the server. Instructions for that are given later in this section.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties .

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables , select Path , and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value . (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin ), and there should be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field. Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump .

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

The following additional arguments can be used when installing the service:

  • You can specify a service name immediately following the --install option. The default service name is MySQL .

  • If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single option. By convention, this should be --defaults-file= file_name to specify the name of an option file from which the server should read options when it starts.

    The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for the server by placing them in the named option file.

  • You can also specify a --local-service option following the service name. This causes the server to run using the LocalService Windows account that has limited system privileges. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given following the service name, they can be in any order.

For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the following rules determine the service name and option files that the server uses:

  • If the service-installation command specifies no service name or the default service name ( MySQL ) following the --install option, the server uses the service name of MySQL and reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a service name other than MySQL following the --install option, the server uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld] group and the group that has the same name as the service in the standard option files. This enables you to use the [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL services, and an option group with the service name for use by the server installed with that service name.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server reads options the same way as described in the previous item, except that it reads options only from the named file and ignores the standard option files.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf
                            

Here, the default service name ( MySQL ) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named file.

Note

On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe will attempt to start the MySQL server.

You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Finally, before trying to start the MySQL service, make sure the user variables %TEMP% and %TMP% (and also %TMPDIR% , if it has ever been set) for the system user who is to run the service are pointing to a folder to which the user has write access. The default user for running the MySQL service is LocalSystem , and the default value for its %TEMP% and %TMP% is C:\Windows\Temp , a directory LocalSystem has write access to by default. However, if there are any changes to that default setup (for example, changes to the user who runs the service or to the mentioned user variables, or the --tmpdir option has been used to put the temporary directory somewhere else), the MySQL service might fail to run because write access to the temporary directory has not been granted to the proper user.

Starting the service

After a MySQL server instance has been installed as a service, Windows starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using an sc start mysqld_service_name or NET START mysqld_service_name command. SC and NET commands are not case-sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data ). It is the file with a suffix of .err .

When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually using the Services utility, the sc stop mysqld_service_name command, the NET START mysqld_service_name command, or the mysqladmin shutdown command.

You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual service if you do not wish for the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --install-manual
                            
Removing the service

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running by executing SC STOP mysqld_service_name or NET STOP mysqld_service_name . Then use SC DELETE mysqld_service_name to remove it:

C:\> SC DELETE mysql
                            

Alternatively, use the mysqld --remove option to remove the service.

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqld" --remove
                            

If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.5.6, “Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line” .

If you encounter difficulties during installation, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation” .

For more information about stopping or removing a Windows service, see Section 5.8.2.2, “Starting Multiple MySQL Instances as Windows Services” .

2.3.5.9 Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqlshow" -u root mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysqladmin" version status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\bin\mysql" test
                            

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables. (Be sure that an account exists that specifies an IP address or you may not be able to connect.)

You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

If you have set a password for the root account, deleted the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then to connect to the MySQL server you must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown previously. See Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server” .

For more information about mysqlshow , see Section 4.5.7, “ mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information” .

2.3.6 Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. This section helps you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log . The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data , or C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more information on the error log and understanding the content, see Section 5.4.2, “The Error Log” .

For information regarding possible errors, also consult the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the SC START mysqld_service_name or NET START mysqld_service_name command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service” .

The following examples show other common error messages you might encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

  • If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files, it displays these messages:

    System error 1067 has occurred.
    Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables:
    Table 'mysql.user' doesn't exist
                                        

    These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations ( C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0\data , respectively).

    This situation can occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated to reflect the new location. In addition, old and new configuration files might conflict. Be sure to delete or rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.

    If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 , ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration ( my.ini ) file. Put the my.ini file in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS . To determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable, issue the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> echo %WINDIR%
                                        

    You can create or modify an option file with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata , you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=E:/mysql
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:/MySQLdata
                                        

    Microsoft Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 8.0
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:\\MySQLdata
                                        

    The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.7, “Using Option Files” .

    If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data directory before restarting the MySQL server.

    See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File” .

  • If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you might see this error:

    Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0
                                        

    This occurs when the Configuration Wizard tries to install the service and finds an existing service with the same name.

    One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is best to remove old services that are no longer in use.

    To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the following command as a user with administrative privileges, on the command line:

    C:\> SC DELETE mysql
    [SC] DeleteService SUCCESS
                                        

    If the SC utility is not available for your version of Windows, download the delsrv utility from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/existing/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.7 Windows Postinstallation Procedures

GUI tools exist that perform most of the tasks described in this section, including:

If necessary, initialize the data directory and create the MySQL grant tables. Windows installation operations performed by MySQL Installer initialize the data directory automatically. For installation from a ZIP Archive package, you can initialize the data directory as described at Section 2.10.1.1, “Initializing the Data Directory Manually Using mysqld” .

Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you may have already assigned a passwords to the initial root account. (See Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows” .) Otherwise, use the password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account” .

Before assigning passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is running (see Section 2.3.5.5, “Starting the Server for the First Time” ). You can also set up a MySQL service that runs automatically when Windows starts (see Section 2.3.5.8, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service” ).

These instructions assume that your current location is the MySQL installation directory and that it has a bin subdirectory containing the MySQL programs used here. If that is not true, adjust the command path names accordingly.

If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “MySQL Installer for Windows” ), the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0 :

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 8.0"
                        

A common installation location for installation from a ZIP archive is C:\mysql :

C:\> cd C:\mysql
                        

Alternatively, add the bin directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables your command interpreter to find MySQL programs properly, so that you can run a program by typing only its name, not its path name. See Section 2.3.5.7, “Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools” .

With the server running, issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to that shown here.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
                        

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema .

The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such as mysql ) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may not be able to view all databases. If you installed MySQL using MySQL Installer, the root user will have been created automatically with the password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root and -p options. (You must use those options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.) With -p , the client program prompts for the root password. For example:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
| sys                |
+--------------------+
                        

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

C:\> bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| engine_cost               |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| general_log               |
| gtid_executed             |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| innodb_index_stats        |
| innodb_table_stats        |
| ndb_binlog_index          |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| proxies_priv              |
| server_cost               |
| servers                   |
| slave_master_info         |
| slave_relay_log_info      |
| slave_worker_info         |
| slow_log                  |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+
                        

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

C:\> bin\mysql -e "SELECT User, Host, plugin FROM mysql.user" mysql
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| User | Host      | plugin                |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
| root | localhost | caching_sha2_password |
+------+-----------+-----------------------+
                        

For more information about mysql and mysqlshow , see Section 4.5.1, “ mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Client” , and Section 4.5.7, “ mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information” .

2.4 Installing MySQL on macOS

For a list of macOS versions that the MySQL server supports, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html .

MySQL for macOS is available in a number of different forms:

For additional information on using MySQL on macOS, see Section 2.4.1, “General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS” .

2.4.1 General Notes on Installing MySQL on macOS

You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

  • Other MySQL installations : The installation procedure does not recognize MySQL installations by package managers such as Homebrew. The installation and upgrade process is for MySQL packages provided by us. If other installations are present, then consider stopping them before executing this installer to avoid port conflicts.

    Homebrew : For example, if you installed MySQL Server using Homebrew to its default location then the MySQL installer installs to a different location and won't upgrade the version from Homebrew. In this scenario you would end up with multiple MySQL installations that, by default, attempt to use the same ports. Stop the other MySQL Server instances before running this installer, such as executing brew services stop mysql to stop the Homebrew's MySQL service.

  • Launchd : A launchd daemon is installed that alters MySQL configuration options. Consider editing it if needed, see the documentation below for additional information. Also, macOS 10.10 removed startup item support in favor of launchd daemons. The optional MySQL preference pane under macOS System Preferences uses the launchd daemon.

  • Users : You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own the MySQL directory and data. You can do this through the Directory Utility , and the mysql user should already exist. For use in single user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix) should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

  • Data : Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL contents into a version and platform specific directory, you can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify an alternative datadir value to set location of the data directory. By default, the MySQL directories are installed under /usr/local/ .

  • Aliases : You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:

    alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
                                        

    For tcsh , use:

    alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin
                                        

    Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup file for your shell. 更多信息,请见 Section 4.2.1, “Invoking MySQL Programs” .

  • Removing : After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in /Library/Receipts/mysql- VERSION .pkg .

  • Legacy : Prior to OS X 10.7, MySQL server was bundled with OS X Server.

2.4.2 Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages

The package is located inside a disk image ( .dmg ) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note

Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager Application (on macOS Server), the preference pane, or mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

To install MySQL using the package installer:

  1. Download the disk image ( .dmg ) file (the community version is available here ) that contains the MySQL package installer. Double-click the file to mount the disk image and see its contents.

    Double-click the MySQL installer package from the disk. It is named according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For example, for MySQL server 8.0.17 it might be named mysql-8.0.17-osx- 10.13-x86_64 .pkg .

  2. The initial wizard introduction screen references the MySQL server version to install. Click Continue to begin the installation.

    The MySQL community edition shows a copy of the relevant GNU General Public License. Click Continue and then Agree to continue.

  3. From the Installation Type page you can either click Install to execute the installation wizard using all defaults, click Customize to alter which components to install (MySQL server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, Launchd Support -- all but MySQL Test are enabled by default).

    Note

    Although the Change Install Location option is visible, the installation location cannot be changed.

    Figure 2.20 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Installation Type

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

    Figure 2.21 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Customize

    Customize shows three package name options: MySQL Server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, and Launchd Support. All three options are checked.

  4. Click Install to install MySQL Server. The installation process ends here if upgrading a current MySQL Server installation, otherwise follow the wizard's additional configuration steps for your new MySQL Server installation.

  5. After a successful new MySQL Server installation, complete the configuration steps by choosing the default encryption type for passwords, define the root password, and also enable (or disable) MySQL server at startup.

  6. The default MySQL 8.0 password mechanism is caching_sha2_password (Strong), and this step allows you to change it to mysql_native_password (Legacy).

    Figure 2.22 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Choose a Password Encryption Type

    Most content is described in the surrounding text. The installer refers to caching_sha2_password as "Use Strong Password Encryption" and mysql_native_password as a "Use Legacy Password Encryption".

    Choosing the legacy password mechanism alters the generated launchd file to set --default_authentication_plugin=mysql_native_password under ProgramArguments . Choosing strong password encryption does not set --default_authentication_plugin because the default MySQL Server value is used, which is caching_sha2_password .

  7. Define a password for the root user, and also toggle whether MySQL Server should start after the configuration step is complete.

    Figure 2.23 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Define Root Password

    Content is described in the surrounding text.

  8. Summary is the final step and references a successful and complete MySQL Server installation. Close the wizard.

    Figure 2.24 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Summary

    Shows that the installation was a success, and includes links to the MySQL manual, mysql.com, and oracle.com.

MySQL server is now installed. If you chose to not start MySQL, then use either launchctl from the command line or start MySQL by clicking "Start" using the MySQL preference pane. For additional information, see Section 2.4.3, “Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon” , and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane” . Use the MySQL Preference Pane or launchd to configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup.

When installing using the package installer, the files are installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of the installation version and platform. For example, the installer file mysql-8.0.17- osx10.13-x86_64.dmg installs MySQL into /usr/local/mysql-8.0.17-osx10.13-x86_64/ with a symlink to /usr/local/mysql . The following table shows the layout of this MySQL installation directory.

Table 2.6 MySQL Installation Layout on macOS

Directory Contents of Directory
bin mysqld server, client and utility programs
data Log files, databases, where /usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err is the default error log
docs Helper documents, like the Release Notes and build information
include Include (header) files
lib Libraries
man Unix manual pages
mysql-test MySQL test suite ('MySQL Test' is disabled by default during the installation process when using the installer package (DMG))
share Miscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
support-files Scripts and sample configuration files
/tmp/mysql.sock Location of the MySQL Unix socket

2.4.3 Installing and Using the MySQL Launch Daemon

macOS uses launch daemons to automatically start, stop, and manage processes and applications such as MySQL.

By default, the installation package (DMG) on macOS installs a launchd file named /Library/LaunchDaemons/com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist that contains a plist definition similar to:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
            <string>--keyring-file-data=/usr/local/mysql/keyring/keyring</string>
            <string>--early-plugin-load=keyring_file=keyring_file.so</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>
                        
Note

Some users report that adding a plist DOCTYPE declaration causes the launchd operation to fail, despite it passing the lint check. We suspect it's a copy-n-paste error. The md5 checksum of a file containing the above snippet is d925f05f6d1b6ee5ce5451b596d6baed .

To enable the launchd service, you can either:

  • Open macOS system preferences and select the MySQL preference panel, and then execute Start MySQL Server .

    Figure 2.25 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

    Shows "MySQL" typed into the macOS System Preferences search box, and a highlighted "MySQL" icon in the bottom left.

    The Instances page includes an option to start or stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the MySQL preference panel and launchd information.

    Figure 2.26 MySQL Preference Pane: Instances

    The left side shows a list of MySQL instances separated by "Active Instance", "Installed Instances", and "Data Directories" sections. The right side shows a "Stop MySQL Server" button, a checkbox titled "Start MySQL when your computer starts up", and "Initialize Database" and "Uninstall" buttons. Several fields reference 8.0.11 as the current installed MySQL version.

  • Or, manually load the launchd file.

    shell> cd /Library/LaunchDaemons
    shell> sudo launchctl load -F com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
                                        
  • To configure MySQL to automatically start at bootup, you can:

    shell> sudo launchctl load -w com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist
                                        
Note

When upgrading MySQL server, the launchd installation process will remove the old startup items that were installed with MySQL server 5.7.7 and below.

Also, upgrading will replace your existing launchd file named com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld.plist .

Additional launchd related information:

  • The plist entries override my.cnf entries, because they are passed in as command line arguments. For additional information about passing in program options, see Section 4.2.4, “Specifying Program Options” .

  • The ProgramArguments section defines the command line options that are passed into the program, which is the mysqld binary in this case.

  • The default plist definition is written with less sophisticated use cases in mind. For more complicated setups, you may want to remove some of the arguments and instead rely on a MySQL configuration file, such as my.cnf .

  • If you edit the plist file, then uncheck the installer option when reinstalling or upgrading MySQL. Otherwise, your edited plist file will be overwritten, and all edits will be lost.

Because the default plist definition defines several ProgramArguments , you might remove most of these arguments and instead rely upon your my.cnf MySQL configuration file to define them. For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple Computer//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd">
<plist version="1.0">
<dict>
    <key>Label</key>             <string>com.oracle.oss.mysql.mysqld</string>
    <key>ProcessType</key>       <string>Interactive</string>
    <key>Disabled</key>          <false/>
    <key>RunAtLoad</key>         <true/>
    <key>KeepAlive</key>         <true/>
    <key>SessionCreate</key>     <true/>
    <key>LaunchOnlyOnce</key>    <false/>
    <key>UserName</key>          <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>GroupName</key>         <string>_mysql</string>
    <key>ExitTimeOut</key>       <integer>600</integer>
    <key>Program</key>           <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
    <key>ProgramArguments</key>
        <array>
            <string>/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqld</string>
            <string>--user=_mysql</string>
            <string>--basedir=/usr/local/mysql</string>
            <string>--datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data</string>
            <string>--plugin-dir=/usr/local/mysql/lib/plugin</string>
            <string>--log-error=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.err</string>
            <string>--pid-file=/usr/local/mysql/data/mysqld.local.pid</string>
            <string>--keyring-file-data=/usr/local/mysql/keyring/keyring</string>
            <string>--early-plugin-load=keyring_file=keyring_file.so</string>
        </array>
    <key>WorkingDirectory</key>  <string>/usr/local/mysql</string>
</dict>
</plist>
                        

In this case, the basedir , datadir , plugin_dir , log_error , pid_file , keyring_file_data , and  --early-plugin-load options were removed from the default plist ProgramArguments definition, which you might have defined in my.cnf instead.

2.4.4 Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Installation Package includes a MySQL preference pane that enables you to start, stop, and control automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

This preference pane is installed by default, and is listed under your system's System Preferences window.

Figure 2.27 MySQL Preference Pane: Location

Shows "MySQL" typed into the macOS System Preferences search box, and a highlighted "MySQL" icon in the bottom left.

The MySQL preference pane is installed with the same DMG file that installs MySQL Server. Typically it is installed with MySQL Server but it can be installed by itself too.

To install the MySQL preference pane:

  1. Go through the process of installing the MySQL server, as described in the documentation at Section 2.4.2, “Installing MySQL on macOS Using Native Packages” .

  2. Click Customize at the Installation Type step. The "Preference Pane" option is listed there and enabled by default; make sure it is not deselected. The other options, such as MySQL Server, can be selected or deslected.

    Figure 2.28 MySQL Package Installer Wizard: Customize

    Customize shows three package name options: MySQL Server, MySQL Test, Preference Pane, and Launchd Support. All three options are checked.

  3. Complete the installation process.

Note

The MySQL preference pane only starts and stops MySQL installation installed from the MySQL package installation that have been installed in the default location.

Once the MySQL preference pane has been installed, you can control your MySQL server instance using this preference pane.

The Instances page includes an option to start and stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the pain and launchd information.

The Instances page includes an option to start or stop MySQL, and Initialize Database recreates the data/ directory. Uninstall uninstalls MySQL Server and optionally the MySQL preference panel and launchd information.

Figure 2.29 MySQL Preference Pane: Instances

The left side shows a list of MySQL instances separated by "Active Instance", "Installed Instances", and "Data Directories" sections. The right side shows a "Stop MySQL Server" button, a checkbox titled "Start MySQL when your computer starts up", and "Initialize Database" and "Uninstall" buttons. Several fields reference 8.0.11 as the current installed MySQL version.

The Configuration page shows MySQL Server options including the path to the MySQL configuration file.

Figure 2.30 MySQL Preference Pane: Configuration

Content is described in the surrounding text.

The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and running (in green) if the server has already been started. The preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

2.5 Installing MySQL on Linux

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL. We recommend that you use one of the distributions from Oracle, for which several methods for installation are available:

Table 2.7 Linux Installation Methods and Information

Type Setup Method Additional Information
Apt Enable the MySQL Apt repository 文档编制
Yum Enable the MySQL Yum repository 文档编制
Zypper Enable the MySQL SLES repository 文档编制
RPM Download a specific package 文档编制
DEB Download a specific package 文档编制
Generic Download a generic package 文档编制
Source Compile from source 文档编制
Docker Use Docker Hub, Docker Store, or Oracle Container Registry 文档编制
Oracle Unbreakable Linux Network Use ULN channels 文档编制

As an alternative, you can use the package manager on your system to automatically download and install MySQL with packages from the native software repositories of your Linux distribution. These native packages are often several versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development milestone releases (DMRs), as these are not usually made available in the native repositories. For more information on using the native package installers, see Section 2.5.7, “Installing MySQL on Linux from the Native Software Repositories” .

Note

For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native package installations perform this operation for you, but for source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up separately. The required script, mysql.server , can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 4.3.3, “ mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script” .

2.5.1 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL Yum Repository

The MySQL Yum repository for Oracle Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, and Fedora provides RPM packages for installing the MySQL server, client, MySQL Workbench, MySQL Utilities, MySQL Router, MySQL Shell, Connector/ODBC, Connector/Python and so on (not all packages are available for all the distributions; see Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum for details).

Before You Start

As a popular, open-source software, MySQL, in its original or re-packaged form, is widely installed on many systems from various sources, including different software download sites, software repositories, and so on. The following instructions assume that MySQL is not already installed on your system using a third-party-distributed RPM package; if that is not the case, follow the instructions given in Section 2.11.1.6, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” or Replacing a Third-Party Distribution of MySQL Using the MySQL Yum Repository .

Steps for a Fresh Installation of MySQL

Follow the steps below to install the latest GA version of MySQL with the MySQL Yum repository:

  1. Adding the MySQL Yum Repository

    First, add the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list. This is a one-time operation, which can be performed by installing an RPM provided by MySQL. Follow these steps:

    1. Go to the Download MySQL Yum Repository page ( https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/repo/yum/ ) in the MySQL Developer Zone.

    2. Select and download the release package for your platform.

    3. Install the downloaded release package with the following command, replacing platform-and-version-specific-package-name with the name of the downloaded RPM package:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall platform-and-version-specific-package-name.rpm
                                                      

      For an EL6-based system, the command is in the form of:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql80-community-release-el6-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
                                                      

      For an EL7-based system:

      shell> sudo yum localinstall mysql80-community-release-el7-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
                                                      

      For Fedora 29:

      shell> sudo dnf localinstall mysql80-community-release-fc29-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
                                                      

      For Fedora 28:

      shell> sudo dnf localinstall mysql80-community-release-fc28-{version-number}.noarch.rpm
                                                      

      The installation command adds the MySQL Yum repository to your system's repository list and downloads the GnuPG key to check the integrity of the software packages. See Section 2.1.3.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” for details on GnuPG key checking.

      You can check that the MySQL Yum repository has been successfully added by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

      shell> yum repolist enabled | grep "mysql.*-community.*"
                                                      

    Note

    Once the MySQL Yum repository is enabled on your system, any system-wide update by the yum update command (or dnf upgrade for dnf-enabled systems) will upgrade MySQL packages on your system and also replace any native third-party packages, if Yum finds replacements for them in the MySQL Yum repository; see Section 2.11.1.6, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” and, for a discussion on some possible effects of that on your system, see Upgrading the Shared Client Libraries .

  2. Selecting a Release Series

    When using the MySQL Yum repository, the latest GA series (currently MySQL 8.0) is selected for installation by default. If this is what you want, you can skip to the next step, Installing MySQL .

    Within the MySQL Yum repository, different release series of the MySQL Community Server are hosted in different subrepositories. The subrepository for the latest GA series (currently MySQL 8.0) is enabled by default, and the subrepositories for all other series (for example, the MySQL 8.0 series) are disabled by default. Use this command to see all the subrepositories in the MySQL Yum repository, and see which of them are enabled or disabled (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

    shell> yum repolist all | grep mysql
                                        

    To install the latest release from the latest GA series, no configuration is needed. To install the latest release from a specific series other than the latest GA series, disable the subrepository for the latest GA series and enable the subrepository for the specific series before running the installation command. If your platform supports yum-config-manager , you can do that by issuing these commands, which disable the subrepository for the 5.7 series and enable the one for the 8.0 series:

    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo yum-config-manager --enable mysql80-community
                                        

    For dnf-enabled platforms:

    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --disable mysql57-community
    shell> sudo dnf config-manager --enable mysql80-community
                                        

    Besides using yum-config-manager or the dnf config-manager command, you can also select a release series by editing manually the /etc/yum.repos.d/mysql-community.repo file. This is a typical entry for a release series' subrepository in the file:

    [mysql57-community]
    name=MySQL 5.7 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-5.7-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
                                        

    Find the entry for the subrepository you want to configure, and edit the enabled option. Specify enabled=0 to disable a subrepository, or enabled=1 to enable a subrepository. For example, to install MySQL 8.0, make sure you have enabled=0 for the above subrepository entry for MySQL 5.7, and have enabled=1 for the entry for the 8.0 series:

    # Enable to use MySQL 8.0
    [mysql80-community]
    name=MySQL 8.0 Community Server
    baseurl=http://repo.mysql.com/yum/mysql-8.0-community/el/6/$basearch/
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=1
    gpgkey=file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-mysql
                                        

    You should only enable subrepository for one release series at any time. When subrepositories for more than one release series are enabled, the latest series will be used by Yum.

    Verify that the correct subrepositories have been enabled and disabled by running the following command and checking its output (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

    shell> yum repolist enabled | grep mysql
                                        
  3. Installing MySQL

    Install MySQL by the following command (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

    shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-server
                                        

    This installs the package for MySQL server ( mysql-community-server ) and also packages for the components required to run the server, including packages for the client ( mysql-community-client ), the common error messages and character sets for client and server ( mysql-community-common ), and the shared client libraries ( mysql-community-libs ).

  4. Starting the MySQL Server

    Start the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld start
    Starting mysqld:[ OK ]
                                        

    You can check the status of the MySQL server with the following command:

    shell> sudo service mysqld status
    mysqld (pid 3066) is running.
                                        

At the initial start up of the server, the following happens, given that the data directory of the server is empty:

  • The server is initialized.

  • SSL certificate and key files are generated in the data directory.

  • validate_password is installed and enabled.

  • A superuser account 'root'@'localhost is created. A password for the superuser is set and stored in the error log file. To reveal it, use the following command:

    shell> sudo grep 'temporary password' /var/log/mysqld.log
                                        

    Change the root password as soon as possible by logging in with the generated, temporary password and set a custom password for the superuser account:

    shell> mysql -uroot -p 
                                        
    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPass4!';
                                        
    Note

    validate_password is installed by default. The default password policy implemented by validate_password requires that passwords contain at least one upper case letter, one lower case letter, one digit, and one special character, and that the total password length is at least 8 characters.

For more information on the postinstallation procedures, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” .

Note

Compatibility Information for EL7-based platforms: The following RPM packages from the native software repositories of the platforms are incompatible with the package from the MySQL Yum repository that installs the MySQL server. Once you have installed MySQL using the MySQL Yum repository, you will not be able to install these packages (and vice versa).

  • akonadi-mysql

Installing Additional MySQL Products and Components with Yum

You can use Yum to install and manage individual components of MySQL. Some of these components are hosted in sub-repositories of the MySQL Yum repository: for example, the MySQL Connectors are to be found in the MySQL Connectors Community sub-repository, and the MySQL Workbench in MySQL Tools Community. You can use the following command to list the packages for all the MySQL components available for your platform from the MySQL Yum repository (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

shell> sudo yum --disablerepo=\* --enablerepo='mysql*-community*' list available
                        

Install any packages of your choice with the following command, replacing package-name with name of the package (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

shell> sudo yum install package-name
                        

For example, to install MySQL Workbench on Fedora:

shell> sudo dnf install mysql-workbench-community
                        

To install the shared client libraries (for dnf-enabled systems, replace yum in the command with dnf ):

shell> sudo yum install mysql-community-libs
                        

Platform Specific Notes

ARM Support

ARM 64-bit (aarch64) is supported on Oracle Linux 7 and requires the Oracle Linux 7 Software Collections Repository (ol7_software_collections). For example, to install the server:

shell> yum-config-manager --enable ol7_software_collections
shell> yum install mysql-community-server
                        
Note

ARM 64-bit (aarch64) is supported on Oracle Linux 7 as of MySQL 8.0.12.

Known Limitation

The 8.0.12 release requires you to adjust the libstdc++7 path by executing ln -s /opt/oracle/oracle-armtoolset-1/root/usr/lib64 /usr/lib64/gcc7 after executing the yum install step.

Updating MySQL with Yum

Besides installation, you can also perform updates for MySQL products and components using the MySQL Yum repository. See Section 2.11.1.6, “Upgrading MySQL with the MySQL Yum Repository” for details.

2.5.2 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL APT Repository

The MySQL APT repository provides deb packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on the following Linux platforms:

  • Debian 9

  • Ubuntu 16.04, 17.10, and 18.04

Instructions for using the MySQL APT Repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL APT Repository .

2.5.3 Installing MySQL on Linux Using the MySQL SLES Repository

The MySQL SLES repository provides RPM packages for installing and managing the MySQL server, client, and other components on SUSE Enterprise Linux Server.

Instructions for using the MySQL SLES repository are available in A Quick Guide to Using the MySQL SLES Repository .

2.5.4 Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages from Oracle

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages provided by Oracle. There are two sources for obtaining them, for the Community Edition of MySQL:

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by Oracle in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the installation instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

MySQL RPM Packages

Table 2.8 RPM Packages for MySQL Community Edition

Package Name Summary
mysql-community-client MySQL client applications and tools
mysql-community-common Common files for server and client libraries
mysql-community-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-embedded-compat MySQL server as an embedded library with compatibility for applications using version 18 of the library
mysql-community-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-community-libs-compat Shared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations
mysql-community-server Database server and related tools
mysql-community-test Test suite for the MySQL server
mysql-community The source code RPM looks similar to mysql-community-8.0.17-1.el7.src.rpm, depending on selected OS

Table 2.9 RPM Packages for the MySQL Enterprise Edition

Package Name Summary
mysql-commercial-backup MySQL Enterprise Backup (added in 8.0.11)
mysql-commercial-client MySQL client applications and tools
mysql-commercial-common Common files for server and client libraries
mysql-commercial-devel Development header files and libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-embedded-compat MySQL server as an embedded library with compatibility for applications using version 18 of the library
mysql-commercial-libs Shared libraries for MySQL database client applications
mysql-commercial-libs-compat Shared compatibility libraries for previous MySQL installations; the version of the libraries matches the version of the libraries installed by default by the distribution you are using
mysql-commercial-server Database server and related tools
mysql-commercial-test Test suite for the MySQL server

The full names for the RPMs have the following syntax:

packagename-version-distribution-arch.rpm
                        

The distribution and arch values indicate the Linux distribution and the processor type for which the package was built. See the table below for lists of the distribution identifiers:

Table 2.10 MySQL Linux RPM Package Distribution Identifiers

Distribution Value Intended Use
el6 , el7 Red Hat Enterprise Linux/Oracle Linux/CentOS 6 or 7
fc28 , fc29 Fedora 28 and 29
sles12